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Missoni

Emily M. Orr

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Designer Biography

Early History of Pattern Companies: 1860s–1880s

Joy Spanabel Emery

Source: A History of the Paper Pattern Industry. The Home Dressmaking Fashion Revolution 2014

Book chapter

Demorest, the first to mass-produce retail patterns for the home sewer in the United States, took advantage of the expanded postal services selling by mail order as well as in retail outlets. Who the actual designer of the first patterns was is somewhat unclear. Mrs. Margaret Demorest (née Poole) is listed as Mme Demorest in Leslie’s Lady’s Gazette of Fashion in July 1854. However, it is believed that William Jennings Demorest employed Ellen Louise Curtis and her sister Kate from the early 1850s

New Markets and Expansion: 1880s–1900

Joy Spanabel Emery

Source: A History of the Paper Pattern Industry. The Home Dressmaking Fashion Revolution 2014

Book chapter

By 1880, the six major U.S. pattern companies—Demorest, Butterick, McCall, Harper’s Bazar, Taylor, and Domestic—had positioned themselves in the market. Each published a magazine advertising their patterns for the latest fashions for women, a full complement of children’s clothing, undergarments for all, and shirts, trousers, and various other men’s non-tailored garments.

Shifts and Balances: 1900–1920s

Joy Spanabel Emery

Source: A History of the Paper Pattern Industry. The Home Dressmaking Fashion Revolution 2014

Book chapter

A dynamic new figure entered the pattern enterprise in the first decade of the new century. Condé Nast was adept at promotion and was attracted to the pattern industry. He organized the Home Pattern Company and distributed dress patterns in an arrangement with Ladies’ Home Journal in 1905 (Seebohm 1982: 32). The Ladies’ Home Journal was an influential women’s periodical with a circulation of 1,000,000 (Mott 1938: vol. 4, 545). Nast had remarkable marketing skills and successfully promoted pattern

Making Clothes for International Markets: A Clothing Perspective on Globalization

Jianhua Zhao

Source: The Chinese Fashion Industry. An Ethnographic Approach 2013

Book chapter

The winter of 2005 was a joyful time for Pittsburgh Steelers’ fans, because their team did the almost impossible. It went into the postseason as a wild card team and upset all the stronger teams on the road and was on its way to win the Super Bowl. The joy spread far beyond Pittsburgh and the United States. Mr. Zeng Gang, a contact and friend of mine who lives in Shanghai, China, and works in the business of international garment trade, was so excited for me that he sent me a Steelers jersey via

Home Front Clothing Initiatives

Geraldine Howell

Source: Wartime Fashion. From Haute Couture to Homemade, 1939–1945 2012

Book chapter

IT in the Clothing Industry

Céline Abecassis-Moedas

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Information technology (IT) in the clothing industry is one of the elements that allows the latest fashion trends from the catwalks to be transformed into mass-market products within days. In clothing manufacturing, it is important to distinguish between preassembly of garments (design, marker-making, or putting the patterns on the fabric, spreading the fabric, cutting, and bundling operations) and garment assembly. Most of the innovations in production and information technologies are taking pla

West Africa

Lisa Aronson

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Africa 2010

Encyclopedia entry

West African markets are well known for their tightly packed displays of textiles in rich arrays of colors and patterns, and tailors on their sewing machines can be heard everywhere sewing visually striking garments that seldom go unnoticed when worn in public. So vital and richly varied are textiles in West Africa that even prominent contemporary artists such as El Anatsui from Ghana and Nigeria and Yinka Shonibare from Nigeria are inspired by them as powerful mediums for discourse on historical

The Wool Industry in Australia

Prudence Black and Anne Farren

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

That the wealth of Australia rode “on the sheep’s back” is a well-known expression. In particular, it has been Merino wool (a thick fine fleece suited to weaving into quality fabric) for the international and increasingly global clothing market that has been Australia’s most significant product. The Merino sheep has been selectively bred for over two hundred years and is recognized worldwide for its uniformly fine and soft fibers. While Australia is home to only a small proportion of the world’s

Size and Fit in Industrially Produced Clothes

Karen Borregaard

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The defining characteristic of ready-to-wear clothes, which differentiates them from made-to-measure clothes, is that they are produced in standard sizes to fit individuals whose exact body dimensions are not known by producers. The aim of standard sizes is to fit as many in a target group as possible. Size refers to both a garment’s measurements and the way size is communicated to customers. In addition, each ready-to-wear style is produced in a range of sizes, known as a sizing system. The numb

Seamstresses

Barbara Burman

Source: The Berg Companion to Fashion 2010

Encyclopedia entry

“Riding an omnibus through & [London’s commercial districts] at the turn of the century, one could hardly avoid noticing gaunt and harried women and children scurrying through the streets & carrying heavy bundles & passing along from workroom to workroom the shirts, suits, blouses, ties and shoes that soon would dress much of the world.” (Schmiechen, p. 1)

Ireland

Síle de Cléir

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The situation regarding the various types of dress in Ireland in the period between the beginning of the nineteenth and the end of the twentieth centuries is a complex one. It is useful, perhaps, in this context to see dress in Ireland at this time as a continuum: folk dress at one end, characterized by locally produced fabrics and traditional aesthetics and deeply embedded in a local social and cultural context; and fashionable dress at the other, with a wider choice of materials and styles conn

The Garment Industry and Retailing in Canada

Cynthia Cooper

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The apparel industry is the tenth-largest manufacturing sector in Canada. Apparel is manufactured in all provinces and territories. T. Eaton Company was a department store that operated from 1869 to 1999 and became a household name in Canada as a mail order company. As one of the early large manufacturers, it led the way in vertical integration. Eaton’s introduced its first mail order catalog in 1884, a thirty-two-page booklet listing department store merchandise. While a wide variety of merchand

Textile and Apparel Industries at the Turn of the Millennium

Kitty G. Dickerson

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Behind the runway shows and other glitz and glamour of the fashion industry are the textile and apparel firms that churn out the garments and other textile products for U.S. consumers. These are companies that have to deal with serious realities of profit and survival in an intensely competitive environment. Just as fashions are transformed over the years with hemlines that rise and fall and silhouettes that change, the industries and companies that produce the fashions have been completely trans

Ready-to-Wear

Jean L. Druesedow

Source: The Berg Companion to Fashion 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Speculative production began in antiquity with garments and accessories traded internationally. For example, ready-to-wear was part of ancient Babylonian business life as recorded on clay tablets dating from 1400 to 1200 B.C.E. A merchant there wrote to his associates to instruct them to open his warehouse, take out garments from his sealed chests and from the chests of garments returned to him by another merchant. He instructed them to “Write your tablets as follows: they have taken so-and-so ma

Settler Dress in Australia

Damayanthie Eluwawalage

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Clothing was a problematic aspect of the social and cultural life of colonial Australia from the time of first settlement in 1788. Apart from military officers and civil officials, much everyday clothing was working-class wear. Yet fashionable dress was soon to become a key aspect of cultural practice, emphasizing the social status and power of the elite and aspirational elite, as well as being a symbolic indicator of class. Status signals were important in this fledgling society made up of dispa

Jews in the Melbourne Garment Trade

Anna Epstein

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

For a large part of the twentieth century the garment trade was an important industry in the southern Australian state of Victoria. Since clothing was a big part of the country’s manufacturing, the Jews of the garment trade made a large contribution to Australia’s economy. This multifaceted industry had its own economic and social history, gorgeous products, and camaraderie and color at its heart, Flinders Lane. It gave rise to the individualism, flair, entrepreneurial spirit, and sheer fun that

The Australiana Phenomenon in Australia

Sally Gray

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The 1970s and 1980s saw a trend in Australian fashion design, consumption, fashion writing, and exhibitions toward the celebration of “Australianness,” including flora, fauna, urban vernacular themes, Aboriginal art motifs, and the idea of a national “personality” in dress. While this preoccupation was not unique to these decades, it was associated then with a wide range of clothing, leading designers like Jenny Kee and Linda Jackson, and key dates in Australian cultural history—including the Bic

The Apparel Industry

Jan Hilger

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Before the mid-nineteenth century garments were produced manually. With the invention of sewing machines, mass manufacturing became possible. In just over 160 years, business complexity increased from one-man companies, dominated by artisan tailors, to multinational corporations. In Europe and in the United States the first apparel factories following the Fordist model were established. A new unskilled workforce replaced skilled craftsmen. With growing distance from the consumer and decreasing in

The Textile Industry

Sara J. Kadolph and Sara B. Marcketti

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Any overview of the textile industry in the United States and Canada will focus primarily on the United States until the latter part of the nineteenth century, as Canada and its textile production were still controlled by Britain until that time. Textile manufacture was one of the first mechanized industries to incorporate outwork production into its manufacturing procedures. An industry of hand-produced lace existed prior to the introduction of English lace machines in Ipswich, Massachusetts, in

The Fashion Industry

Yuniya Kawamura

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Global Perspectives 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The origin of garment making is traceable to when humans started covering their bodies. Western clothes changed from the unconstructed dress of the ancient Mediterranean world to the more structured garments of the late Middle Ages. Western apparel became more intricate, requiring increasingly specialized skills for its construction. Before the Industrial Revolution that began in England in the latter half of the eighteenth century, making clothes was an arduous task, and quality garments were an

Garment Manufacture and Retailing in Japan

Hye-Shin Kim, Eunah Yoh and Eun-Young Shin

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Although short in history, the development of Japan’s apparel industry reflects the swift changes in the social, economic, and political environment around the world as well as in Japan within the past few centuries. Since the adoption of Western apparel during the Meiji era in the late 1800s, Japan’s apparel business has evolved from small custom tailor shops to a sophisticated apparel industry with innovative textiles, mass customization, and supply-chain management systems. Japan has made impr

New Zealand Textiles and Apparel Sectors

R. M. Laing and C. A. Wilson

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Development of the textile and apparel sectors in New Zealand can be traced from settler society to the early twenty-first century, influenced by geography, communication, trade policies and agreements, government assistance, and fashion and technical developments of Western Europe and the United States. During this period there were times of dependence, then relative self-sufficiency in the late nineteenth and much of the early twentieth century. The change to greater dependency on imports durin

Finland

Bo Lönnqvist

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Early nineteenth-century Finnish fashion was influenced by Stockholm, capital of Finland and Sweden since the thirteenth century. In the 1790s the Finnish upper classes wore styles influenced by rococo and neoclassicism, known as Gustavian after Gustavus III of Sweden. After the war of 1808–1809 Finland was separated from Sweden and annexed to the Russian Empire as a grand duchy until Finnish independence in 1917. A new bourgeois class developed. Male dress lost its extravagance, symbolizing bure

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