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Missoni

Emily M. Orr

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Designer Biography

West Africa

Lisa Aronson

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Africa 2010

Encyclopedia entry

West African markets are well known for their tightly packed displays of textiles in rich arrays of colors and patterns, and tailors on their sewing machines can be heard everywhere sewing visually striking garments that seldom go unnoticed when worn in public. So vital and richly varied are textiles in West Africa that even prominent contemporary artists such as El Anatsui from Ghana and Nigeria and Yinka Shonibare from Nigeria are inspired by them as powerful mediums for discourse on historical

The Wool Industry in Australia

Prudence Black and Anne Farren

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

That the wealth of Australia rode “on the sheep’s back” is a well-known expression. In particular, it has been Merino wool (a thick fine fleece suited to weaving into quality fabric) for the international and increasingly global clothing market that has been Australia’s most significant product. The Merino sheep has been selectively bred for over two hundred years and is recognized worldwide for its uniformly fine and soft fibers. While Australia is home to only a small proportion of the world’s

Seamstresses

Barbara Burman

Source: The Berg Companion to Fashion 2010

Encyclopedia entry

“Riding an omnibus through & [London’s commercial districts] at the turn of the century, one could hardly avoid noticing gaunt and harried women and children scurrying through the streets & carrying heavy bundles & passing along from workroom to workroom the shirts, suits, blouses, ties and shoes that soon would dress much of the world.” (Schmiechen, p. 1)

The Garment Industry and Retailing in Canada

Cynthia Cooper

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The apparel industry is the tenth-largest manufacturing sector in Canada. Apparel is manufactured in all provinces and territories. T. Eaton Company was a department store that operated from 1869 to 1999 and became a household name in Canada as a mail order company. As one of the early large manufacturers, it led the way in vertical integration. Eaton’s introduced its first mail order catalog in 1884, a thirty-two-page booklet listing department store merchandise. While a wide variety of merchand

Textile and Apparel Industries at the Turn of the Millennium

Kitty G. Dickerson

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Behind the runway shows and other glitz and glamour of the fashion industry are the textile and apparel firms that churn out the garments and other textile products for U.S. consumers. These are companies that have to deal with serious realities of profit and survival in an intensely competitive environment. Just as fashions are transformed over the years with hemlines that rise and fall and silhouettes that change, the industries and companies that produce the fashions have been completely trans

Settler Dress in Australia

Damayanthie Eluwawalage

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Clothing was a problematic aspect of the social and cultural life of colonial Australia from the time of first settlement in 1788. Apart from military officers and civil officials, much everyday clothing was working-class wear. Yet fashionable dress was soon to become a key aspect of cultural practice, emphasizing the social status and power of the elite and aspirational elite, as well as being a symbolic indicator of class. Status signals were important in this fledgling society made up of dispa

The Apparel Industry

Jan Hilger

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Before the mid-nineteenth century garments were produced manually. With the invention of sewing machines, mass manufacturing became possible. In just over 160 years, business complexity increased from one-man companies, dominated by artisan tailors, to multinational corporations. In Europe and in the United States the first apparel factories following the Fordist model were established. A new unskilled workforce replaced skilled craftsmen. With growing distance from the consumer and decreasing in

The Textile Industry

Sara J. Kadolph and Sara B. Marcketti

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Any overview of the textile industry in the United States and Canada will focus primarily on the United States until the latter part of the nineteenth century, as Canada and its textile production were still controlled by Britain until that time. Textile manufacture was one of the first mechanized industries to incorporate outwork production into its manufacturing procedures. An industry of hand-produced lace existed prior to the introduction of English lace machines in Ipswich, Massachusetts, in

The Fashion Industry

Yuniya Kawamura

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Global Perspectives 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The origin of garment making is traceable to when humans started covering their bodies. Western clothes changed from the unconstructed dress of the ancient Mediterranean world to the more structured garments of the late Middle Ages. Western apparel became more intricate, requiring increasingly specialized skills for its construction. Before the Industrial Revolution that began in England in the latter half of the eighteenth century, making clothes was an arduous task, and quality garments were an

New Zealand Textiles and Apparel Sectors

R. M. Laing and C. A. Wilson

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Development of the textile and apparel sectors in New Zealand can be traced from settler society to the early twenty-first century, influenced by geography, communication, trade policies and agreements, government assistance, and fashion and technical developments of Western Europe and the United States. During this period there were times of dependence, then relative self-sufficiency in the late nineteenth and much of the early twentieth century. The change to greater dependency on imports durin

Finland

Bo Lönnqvist

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Early nineteenth-century Finnish fashion was influenced by Stockholm, capital of Finland and Sweden since the thirteenth century. In the 1790s the Finnish upper classes wore styles influenced by rococo and neoclassicism, known as Gustavian after Gustavus III of Sweden. After the war of 1808–1809 Finland was separated from Sweden and annexed to the Russian Empire as a grand duchy until Finnish independence in 1917. A new bourgeois class developed. Male dress lost its extravagance, symbolizing bure

Home Production

Tone Rasch

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Clothes are connected to necessity as well as to luxury. The production of them can be viewed the same way. Many clothes have historically been produced at home but in different contexts. Sewing and needlework have been paid work, hobbies, and a part of domestic work during the last couple of centuries. In the early twentieth century, many (if not most) clothes and garments were made at home. This situation has changed, although textiles and clothing are still important parts of housekeeping in t

Materials

Giorgio Riello

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Before 1800, fashionable individuals were defined as much by the textiles they chose as the styles they wore. There are characteristics shared by all textiles. First, they were used by people across society to construct notions of worth and appropriateness. Second, their importance in medieval, early modern, and modern European societies was linked to their value. Before industrialization reduced production costs, textiles remained generally luxuries. A third shared characteristic was their ubiqu

Footwear

Giorgio Riello

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The importance of shoes in twenty-first-century Western society extends well beyond their functional use. Through their material appearance—their texture, weight, and design—shoes express abstract ideas that range from sexual appeal to allure, smartness, and informality. Shoes, therefore, are not just accessories that decorate the body or allow people to embrace the latest fashion; they convey messages that are understood across society. High heels stand for exaggerated femininity; red shoes for

The Textile Industry

Michiel Scheffer

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The textile industry covers the sequence of production stages, starting from fibers through clothing assembly. Europe’s textile industry has been significant in both economic and cultural history. It was the first sector to industrialize and was therefore at the core of the pervasive economic and social changes that took place in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. For more than a century, the advantages of large-scale cloth production made West Europe a world leader in this trade, but since

The Garment Industry and Retailing in the United States

Rob Schorman

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The U.S. garment industry has followed a distinctive path that at various times has seemed to position it in the vanguard of industrial development and at other times as a stubborn holdout of archaic production methods. Some characteristics of the industry have remained stable from the start: its dependence on a dense web of subcontractors arrayed in relatively small units of production, its basic workflow organization, its extreme sensitivity to consumer preferences, and its resistance to automa

Shoes and Shoemaking

Elizabeth Semmelhack

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Shoemaking in North America dates back to the establishment of the very first colonies. It was one of the trades that the Virginia Company hoped to establish in Jamestown, and one of the early investors in the Virginia Company was the Worshipful Company of Cordwainers, the shoemakers’ guild in London. The first mention of shoemakers, or cordwainers as they were known (a term derived from their work with Cordova leather) dates to 1610. Archaeological evidence from Jamestown suggests that the Engli

Introduction to Fashion

Phyllis G. Tortora

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The word fashion implies transience, mutability, and variability. Acceptance by a large number of people is also part of fashion, but adoption by many people alone does not make an item fashionable. Clear evidence of fashion change appears by the fourteenth century, when styles of dress can be seen to have altered every thirty to forty years. Century by century these changes came more frequently until, by the end of the twentieth century, fashion designer Karl Lagerfeld saw major fashion changes

Retailing, Clothing, and Textiles Production in Australia

Sally Weller

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Although the Australian textiles and clothing manufacturing industries have been contracting steadily since the early 1970s, the range of activities involved in bringing clothing and related products to the market remain a major component of the national economy and an important source of employment, especially in urban areas. The people engaged in bringing clothing and clothing-related textiles to Australia’s consumer markets work in a variety of industries including retailing, importing, wholes

Cheap Mass-Produced Men's Clothing in the Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries

Sarah Levitt

Source: Classic and Modern Writings on Fashion 2nd Edition 2009

Book chapter

The clothing of the working people, in the majority of cases, is in a very bad condition. The material used for it is not of the best adapted. Wool and linen have almost vanished from the wardrobe of both sexes, and cotton has taken their place. Shirts are made of bleached or coloured cotton goods; the dresses of the women are chiefly of cotton print goods, and woollen petticoats are rarely seen on the washline. The men wear chiefly trousers of fustian or other heavy cotton goods, and jackets or

Paris: A Historical View

Nancy L. Green

Source: Unravelling the Rag Trade. Immigrant Entrepreneurship in Seven World Cities 2002

Book chapter

One of the most striking characteristics of the women’s garment industry today is its remarkable similarity – in its basic outline, or silhouette, if you will – with its own early history of a century ago. The other remarkable phenomenon is the lack of historical memory on the part of many industry participants and observers today. Fluctuating styles, widespread subcontracting, homework, and, above all, a largely immigrant and female workforce have been part and parcel of the ‘rag trade’ since it

West Midlands: Still Managing to Survive

Monder Ram, Bob Jerrard and Joy Husband

Source: Unravelling the Rag Trade. Immigrant Entrepreneurship in Seven World Cities 2002

Book chapter

During the 1980s, the decline of garment manufacturing in Britain was such that it began to be viewed as a ‘sunset industry’ (Davenport et al. 1986). Between the mid-1970s and the early 1980s, employment in the clothing industry fell by a third to less than 200,000, and the previously stable British market with its well-established characteristics of mass production, predictable design and long production runs became increasingly vulnerable to newly industrializing countries such as Hong Kong. De

Needle Games: A Discussion of Mixed Embeddedness

Jan Rath

Source: Unravelling the Rag Trade. Immigrant Entrepreneurship in Seven World Cities 2002

Book chapter

Hundreds of Turkish immigrants, legal and illegal alike, who worked in the garment industry gathered on a dark November night in the Moses and Aaron Church in downtown Amsterdam, the Netherlands (Rath 1999). The same church had been in the limelight a few years earlier during a turbulent but successful political campaign resulting in the regularization of a group of illegal immigrants (van Groenendael 1986). Since then, local civil rights activists had attributed a special symbolic meaning to thi

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