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Fashion Designers, Seamstresses, and Tailors

Cynthia Amnéus

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Throughout the nineteenth century, North American fashion followed the dictates of French design. American dressmakers and tailors looked to Paris for the newest silhouettes and adapted them to the American lifestyle. It was not until the 1930s that independent fashion designers emerged and rejected the idea that all fashion must be inspired by Paris. These early designers created a unique “American look” that was predicated on comfort. This design tended to be more casual, with an air of sophist

Worth, Charles Frederick

Elizabeth Ann Coleman

Source: The Berg Companion to Fashion 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Charles Frederick Worth was uncommonly astute in recognizing that his talents were better directed toward artistic creativity rather than managing a business. Following a period of working in London dry-goods shops, Worth set out for Paris. In 1846 he found a position at the prominent dry-goods and dressmaking firm of Gagelin et Opigez. This position gave Worth the experience that later enabled him to build his own business. At Gagelin he was exposed to the best resources for fabrics and trims, a

Russian Fashionable Dress at the Turn of the Twentieth Century

Elizabeth Durst

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Russia’s sartorial history beginning in the eighteenth century was one of eventual assimilation to an international Western standard, yet one that met with occasional collisions between native and imported traditions, particularly as Russia considered its national identity vis-à-vis the West. Throughout the eighteenth and most of the nineteenth century, the split between those who dressed according to folk customs and those who took their cue from Paris and London primarily reflected class divisi

Czech Urban Dress, 1948 to Twenty-First Century

Konstantina Hlaváková

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

After the Communists seized power in Czechoslovakia in 1948, political change affected all areas of social life. The Communist regime considered fashion and styles of dress as effective ideological instruments through which it could exercise its control of society. The nationalization and liquidation of prospering small firms and the destruction of a network of services that had grown up over decades on the basis of natural need caused immediate economic problems. The new production structure and

Lesage, François

Lydia Kamitsis

Source: The Berg Companion to Fashion 2010

Encyclopedia entry

At the time of his father’s death, the embroidery house that Lesage inherited was among the most important and prestigious specialty companies of its type in the world. In 1924 his father, Albert, had taken over the business of the embroiderer Michonet. Michonet’s venerable firm, which was founded in 1858, had supplied the great names of couture of the belle epoque (Charles Frederick Worth, John Redfern, Jacques Doucet, Callot Soeurs) with beautiful embroidery to decorate their creations. The fir

Lucile

Alistair O’Neill

Source: The Berg Companion to Fashion 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Fashion in Belgrade, 1918 to 1941

Bojana Popović

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

In the wake of World War I, Serbia became part of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes (from 1929, the Kingdom of Yugoslavia), and its capital city, Belgrade, was proclaimed the capital of this new state, which was ruled by the Serbian Karadjordjevic dynasty. Despite economic and political tensions, the kingdom kept pace with the process of modernization that was in progress in the rest of postwar Europe, and Belgrade’s appearance and the routines of its inhabitants were changing very quick

The Production and Retailing of Fashionable Dress in Russia, 1700 to 1917

Christine Ruane

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

In 1700, the tsar Peter the Great decreed that the court, government servitors, and urban residents must replace their traditional form of dress with European clothing. While this revolution in dress had an immediate social and psychological impact, it also created a serious economic problem. While the court could rely upon artisans in the Kremlin workshops and Moscow’s foreign quarter to create their new wardrobes, there simply were not enough individuals trained in the art of European design to

England

Naomi E.A. Tarrant

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

In 1800, the people of England dressed in the general West European clothing style that was worn by all fashionable people. Wealth determined what a person could afford to wear but not the style. There was no folk dress, so the general impression was that wealthy people wore the same styles as their workers, with only the quality showing the difference. The poor acquired garments from secondhand clothes dealers or as gifts from wealthier family members or friends, charities, and employers, as wel

Scotland

Naomi E.A. Tarrant

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

By 1800, those people in Scotland who could afford it dressed in the style of clothing usually known as fashionable West European. This was no different from the dress of others of their class within Britain. There is no folk dress in Scotland, but there are some types of occupational dress that have been associated with Scotland or with particular types of work. Those who had little income for clothing dressed in what they could afford or were given by charities. As in former times, secondhand c

Czech Urban Dress, Nineteenth Century to 1948

Eva Uchalová

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Czech fashion refers to fashionable clothes created in the Czech lands, that is, Bohemia, Moravia, and Silesia, that were designed, made, and used by all nations that lived in these territories, the largest of which were the Czechs, Germans, and Jews. In general, Czech fashion was based on the international Western style created in Paris, London, and Vienna, and to a lesser extent in Berlin; the local fashion centers were Prague and, in Moravia, Brno and Olomouc. In the nineteenth century, the cl

Book chapter

I came to the study of wedding dresses as a daughter. The Fabrications project was my way of bridging the gap that distance, time and education had put between my mother and me. I used it to come to terms, intellectually and emotionally, with her skilled domestic labor, and the place this labor did or did not make for her in the world. As the exhibit developed, I became increasingly aware of the actual objects that Mom had created – her reality. One by one, out of boxes, trunks and closets, the w

Patterns of Choice: Women’s and Children’s Clothing in the Wallis Archive, York Castle Museum

Mary M. Brooks

Source: The Culture of Sewing. Gender, Consumption and Home Dressmaking 1999

Book chapter

The Wallis family was a financially secure, middle-class Quaker family living in Darlington, County Durham, in northern England. Amy Mounsey married Anthony Wallis, a schools’ inspector, in 1910 and moved to live in Penrith, Cumbria. She had three children: Edward, Henry and Rachel. (Figure 10.1) In the 1930s, Rachel studied music in London and Vienna, while there changing to studying architecture. (Clegg 1998) After her marriage, she moved to Cambridge and, as Rachel Rostas, combined architectur

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