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Ukrainian Fashion, the 1940s to 1990s

Tetiana Bobchenko

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Following the end of World War II, everyday life returned to normal very slowly in Soviet Ukraine. The opening of the Kyiv (the post-Soviet Ukrainian spelling of Kiev) House of Fashion in 1944 was one of the first so-called peacetime miracles. In the beginning, it was just a small workshop, and its staff brought their own irons and sewing machines. A few decades later, it employed five hundred college-educated designers, cutters, tailors, and embroidery artists and occupied a seven-story building

Soviet Underwear

Julia Demidenko

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Soviet-era underwear—both its manufacturing and consumption—were determined not only by fashion but also, to a great extent, by the ideology and political goals of the state and its economic priorities at different stages. As a result of the revolution of February 1917, underwear became simpler, and its assortment was reduced. Due to the devastation that followed the October Revolution of 1917 and the civil war, people continued to wear prerevolutionary styles of underwear.

Textile and Apparel Industries at the Turn of the Millennium

Kitty G. Dickerson

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Behind the runway shows and other glitz and glamour of the fashion industry are the textile and apparel firms that churn out the garments and other textile products for U.S. consumers. These are companies that have to deal with serious realities of profit and survival in an intensely competitive environment. Just as fashions are transformed over the years with hemlines that rise and fall and silhouettes that change, the industries and companies that produce the fashions have been completely trans

Patterns and Pattern Making

Joy Spanabel Emery

Source: The Berg Companion to Fashion 2010

Encyclopedia entry

In the United States, Godey’s sold full-scale patterns by Mme Demorest through mail order in 1854. Frank Leslie’s Gazette of Fashions included full-scale, foldout Demorest patterns in the monthly periodical as well as offering patterns by mail. The patterns were one size only. Because they were offered through retail or mail order, Demorest patterns were the first commercial patterns in the United States (Emery, p. 1999). They offered a wide range of ladies, children’s, and men’s tissue-paper pat

Hoyningen-Huene, George

William Ewing

Source: The Berg Companion to Fashion 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Ionic columns rose alongside factory smoke-stacks, Greek temples alongside railroad tunnels and depots & and the ladies and gentlemen of Paris, London, New York and Biarritz enjoyed the sunshine among pedestals from which the gods of ancient Greece looked down in naked silence, between snorting stallions and muscular heroes.

North American Silk Industry

Jacqueline Field

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada 2010

Encyclopedia entry

By the early twentieth century, the U.S. silk industry was the largest in the world. It transformed silk, a historically scarce and expensive luxury, into a widely available and affordable fabric. Silk materials filtered into almost every kind of female dress, many articles of male dress, and all sorts of trimmings and accessories. An array of different silks—plain, patterned, colorful, lustrous, soft, rustling, light, heavy—to one degree or another brought the visual aesthetic and sensuous pleas

Soviet State Cosmetic Company TEZHE in the 1930s

Jukka Gronow

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The Soviet culture of cosmetics was born in the middle of the 1930s. A major reorientation took place in the cultural policy of the USSR that had a direct impact on the consumption habits of Soviet citizens. This turn coincided with the final consolidation of Stalin’s power in the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. Stalin’s slogan from the year 1936, “life has become better, life has become more joyous, comrades,” summarized this new cultural mood. It formed a sharp contrast to the previous off

Czech Urban Dress, 1948 to Twenty-First Century

Konstantina Hlaváková

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

After the Communists seized power in Czechoslovakia in 1948, political change affected all areas of social life. The Communist regime considered fashion and styles of dress as effective ideological instruments through which it could exercise its control of society. The nationalization and liquidation of prospering small firms and the destruction of a network of services that had grown up over decades on the basis of natural need caused immediate economic problems. The new production structure and

Garment Manufacture and Retailing in Korea

Geum Key-Sook

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Since the mid-twentieth century, Korea’s garment industry has grown remarkably. Its fashion industry has expanded globally, with both domestic brands and foreign boutiques. Although Western clothing only appeared in Korea in the early twentieth century, its influence has spread to become a major national industry. The garment factories’ high productivity contributed to the country’s growth during the 1970s. Although many Koreans wore hanbok (Korean traditional dress) into the twentieth century, t

Garment Manufacture and Retailing in Japan

Hye-Shin Kim, Eunah Yoh and Eun-Young Shin

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Although short in history, the development of Japan’s apparel industry reflects the swift changes in the social, economic, and political environment around the world as well as in Japan within the past few centuries. Since the adoption of Western apparel during the Meiji era in the late 1800s, Japan’s apparel business has evolved from small custom tailor shops to a sophisticated apparel industry with innovative textiles, mass customization, and supply-chain management systems. Japan has made impr

Paterson, New Jersey, Silk Industry

Mary Pluckhahn Masilamani

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Estonia: Urban Dress

Reet Piiri

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

In the thirteenth century, Estonia was divided among German nobility, but no German peasants moved there, so a clear ethnic divide developed along class lines. Clothing was produced in guilds, and also at home, especially (but not only) in poorer households. The fifteenth century marked the advent of the décolleté, hoop skirt, flared sleeves, and gold and silver embroidery. Although the Reformation reached Estonia in 1523, the courtly clothing fashions of Catholic Spain exerted an influence. The

Fashion in Belgrade, 1918 to 1941

Bojana Popović

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

In the wake of World War I, Serbia became part of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes (from 1929, the Kingdom of Yugoslavia), and its capital city, Belgrade, was proclaimed the capital of this new state, which was ruled by the Serbian Karadjordjevic dynasty. Despite economic and political tensions, the kingdom kept pace with the process of modernization that was in progress in the rest of postwar Europe, and Belgrade’s appearance and the routines of its inhabitants were changing very quick

The Textile Industry

Michiel Scheffer

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The textile industry covers the sequence of production stages, starting from fibers through clothing assembly. Europe’s textile industry has been significant in both economic and cultural history. It was the first sector to industrialize and was therefore at the core of the pervasive economic and social changes that took place in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. For more than a century, the advantages of large-scale cloth production made West Europe a world leader in this trade, but since

Textile and Garment Manufacture and Retailing in China

Dong Shen

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

China’s industrial revolution started at the end of the nineteenth century and the beginning of the twentieth century. The leading sectors that fueled the industrial revolution included mining, iron production, and textile manufacturing. From the beginning, the textile industry played an important role, with major production centers in Shanghai, Wuhan, Guangzhou, Changsha, and Tianjin turning out large quantities of cotton fiber, yarn, and fabrics.

Slovak Fashion after 1989

Zuzana Sidlikova

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The year 1989 was one of political changes for the Communist countries in East Europe, which also influenced the then-Czechoslovak textile and clothing industries. The companies, which had been operating under state rule since their nationalization in 1945–1948, became privately owned in 1991. COMECON (Council for Mutual Economic Assistance), the association through which the Soviet Union and East European Socialist countries traded between themselves, also disappeared. As a result of this disint

Fashion Marketing and Merchandising

Elaine Stone

Source: The Berg Companion to Fashion 2010

Encyclopedia entry

ANAT, Syria

Heike Weber

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

ANAT is a textile and clothing design firm that was founded in 1988 in Damascus, Syria. It was an initiative of a group of women who wanted to work and provide their families with extra income. The embroidery projects in Syria at the time were all connected to Palestinian political organizations. Disorganization and unprofessionalism led to the failure of similar enterprises as economically independent projects, and all of them needed to be sponsored by political organizations. ANAT’s challenge,

Developing Consumerism and the Ready-made Clothing Trade in Britain, 1750–1800

Beverly Lemire

Source: Classic and Modern Writings on Fashion 2nd Edition 2009

Book chapter

The Stationers' Company had obtained a monopoly for the publication of women's almanacs in 1704 and they produced The Ladies' Diary or The Women's Almanack. In 1750, a black and white engraving of a fashionable gown was included at the front of this volume, in response to the interest in fashions evinced by their readers. Pictures of this sort were included in all subsequent editions, depicting styles of full dress, undress, head coverings, bonnets, and accessories. In 1770 the monopoly was succe

Cheap Mass-Produced Men's Clothing in the Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries

Sarah Levitt

Source: Classic and Modern Writings on Fashion 2nd Edition 2009

Book chapter

The clothing of the working people, in the majority of cases, is in a very bad condition. The material used for it is not of the best adapted. Wool and linen have almost vanished from the wardrobe of both sexes, and cotton has taken their place. Shirts are made of bleached or coloured cotton goods; the dresses of the women are chiefly of cotton print goods, and woollen petticoats are rarely seen on the washline. The men wear chiefly trousers of fustian or other heavy cotton goods, and jackets or

The Onondaga Silk Company’s ‘American Artist Print Series’ of 1947

Amy Lund and Linda Welters

Source: Twentieth-Century American Fashion 2008

Book chapter

Editors’ Introduction: After the Second World War ended in 1945, most Americans resumed family life. The GI Bill sent many veterans back to school to further their educations. Women gave up their wartime jobs and retreated to their homes to raise children.

The Peruvian Connection: A Retail Company

Victoria Z. Rivers

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Latin America and the Caribbean 2005

Encyclopedia entry

The Peruvian Connection is a global business with a humble beginning. Although the brand began with sweaters made from high-quality natural fibers, the Peruvian Connection currently designs, manufactures, and markets seasonal lines of women’s and men’s clothing, fashion accessories, and products for the home. The Peruvian Connection has an interesting story, for the company successfully maintains an artisan-made brand image based on Andean and international traditional textile techniques, materia

Paris: A Historical View

Nancy L. Green

Source: Unravelling the Rag Trade. Immigrant Entrepreneurship in Seven World Cities 2002

Book chapter

One of the most striking characteristics of the women’s garment industry today is its remarkable similarity – in its basic outline, or silhouette, if you will – with its own early history of a century ago. The other remarkable phenomenon is the lack of historical memory on the part of many industry participants and observers today. Fluctuating styles, widespread subcontracting, homework, and, above all, a largely immigrant and female workforce have been part and parcel of the ‘rag trade’ since it

Miami: Ethnic Succession and Failed Restructuring

Guillermo Grenier and Alex

Source: Unravelling the Rag Trade. Immigrant Entrepreneurship in Seven World Cities 2002

Book chapter

Behind tall fences and barren walls in the north-west section of Greater Miami there are numerous small apparel firms, the epitome of Sunbelt industry. There are no smokestacks or grimy buildings, just low-lying concrete-block rectangles joined by acres and acres of pavement covered with thousands of cars. Inside the buildings is the Sunbelt’s most attractive economic asset: abundant, mostly nonunion, mostly female, low-wage immigrant labour.Low corporate tax rates are another attractive feature

Los Angeles: Wearing out Their Welcome

Ivan Light and Victoria D. Ojeda

Source: Unravelling the Rag Trade. Immigrant Entrepreneurship in Seven World Cities 2002

Book chapter

Immigrants dominated the Los Angeles garment manufacturing industry in the past, and they still do.For a personal account of the early garment industry in Los Angeles, see Orfalea (1999). However, Los Angeles was not the United States’ leading garment production centre until about 1989. In 1924 Los Angeles was the fourth largest garment manufacturing centre in the United States with an employment base of immigrant whites.In Los Angeles, Asian and Latin American immigrants replaced the ethnic whit

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