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The Garment Industry and Retailing in Canada

Cynthia Cooper

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The apparel industry is the tenth-largest manufacturing sector in Canada. Apparel is manufactured in all provinces and territories. T. Eaton Company was a department store that operated from 1869 to 1999 and became a household name in Canada as a mail order company. As one of the early large manufacturers, it led the way in vertical integration. Eaton’s introduced its first mail order catalog in 1884, a thirty-two-page booklet listing department store merchandise. While a wide variety of merchand

The Fashion Industry

Yuniya Kawamura

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Global Perspectives 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The origin of garment making is traceable to when humans started covering their bodies. Western clothes changed from the unconstructed dress of the ancient Mediterranean world to the more structured garments of the late Middle Ages. Western apparel became more intricate, requiring increasingly specialized skills for its construction. Before the Industrial Revolution that began in England in the latter half of the eighteenth century, making clothes was an arduous task, and quality garments were an

Victorian Fashion

Rebecca N. Mitchell

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

This article offers a review of the major sartorial trends that occurred in Britain during the reign of Queen Victoria (1837–1901), to suggest that evolving women’s and men’s fashions in the period reflect the social, political, and economic developments of the day. In addition to discussing the evolution of Victorian style, the article treats industrial and retail innovations (including the rise of mass-produced garments and the department store), progressive movements (including the Rational Dr

Homeworking and the Sewing Machine in the British Clothing Industry 1850–1905

Andrew Godley

Source: The Culture of Sewing. Gender, Consumption and Home Dressmaking 1999

Book chapter

A series of patents granted in the United States in the late 1840s and early 1850s formed the key components of the early sewing machine. The patent owners combined to form a patent-pool from 1856 to 1877, which determined the early structure of the sewing machine manufacturing industry. (Hounshell 1984: 67;Davies 1976: 5–12)The following section is drawn from Godley (1996). The principal manufacturers – Wheeler and Wilson, Willcox and Gibbs, Grover and Baker, and Singer – quickly established the

A Beautiful Ornament in the Parlour or Boudoir: The Domestication of the Sewing Machine

Nicholas Oddy

Source: The Culture of Sewing. Gender, Consumption and Home Dressmaking 1999

Book chapter

Immense numbers of the sewing machines are disposed of every week to tailors, clothiers, hosiers, sail-makers etc., and some to private families. The price, £30, will, of course, for the present, place it out of the reach of most of the latter; but that it will one day be an essential article of furniture in every well regulated household we have no doubt.

The Sewing Machine Comes Home

Tim Putnam

Source: The Culture of Sewing. Gender, Consumption and Home Dressmaking 1999

Book chapter

Patent disputes among early makers and inventors were a factor inhibiting the expansion of the industry. The agreement known as the ‘Sewing Machine Combination’ concluded this ‘war’ at the end of 1856 and established a common technological platform. The Combination’s decision to license rather than restrict rights represented a belief in the very wide potential dissemination of machines for sewing and an acceptance that design, production and marketing innovation could not be controlled by, or li

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