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Bridal Wear

Elizabeth Glendinning

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Article

The evolution of the bridal gown, and its history, aesthetic, and rituals, are significant within our cultural history and have an influence on the contemporary wedding ceremony. Modern designers continue to be influenced by fashion history, or may reflect current styles and concerns. This article predominantly refers to the white wedding gown worn traditionally in Western Christian cultures, its heritage, and the wedding dress as archival object.

Antonio Berardi

Shonagh Marshall

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Designer Biography

Missionary Dress in Samoa

Prue Ahrens

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The first European Christian missionaries to establish a station in the South Pacific were members of the London Missionary Society (LMS) who arrived in Tahiti in 1797. Over the next one hundred years a number of European Christian denominations established missions there. For example, mission stations were established in Tonga by Wesleyans (1826) and Marists (1832), and in the Gilberts and Ellice Islands (now Kiribati and Tuvalu) by the LMS (1877) and the Catholic Sacred Heart Mission (1881). In

Amish, Mennonites, Hutterites, and Brethren

Jean L. Druesedow

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Anabaptists derive their name because the early practitioners of this branch of Protestantism sought to be rebaptized as adults although they had been baptized as children. There are four major Anabaptist groups: Hutterites, Mennonites, Brethren, and Amish, with subgroups within each category. Dress is an important means used by many Anabaptist groups to define their affiliation with a particular church, indicate their humility and willingness to submit to church discipline, and demonstrate their

Quakers and Shakers

Beverly Gordon

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Anabaptists derive their name because the early practitioners of this branch of Protestantism sought to be rebaptized as adults although they had been baptized as children. There are four major Anabaptist groups: Hutterites, Mennonites, Brethren, and Amish, with subgroups within each category. Dress is an important means used by many Anabaptist groups to define their affiliation with a particular church, indicate their humility and willingness to submit to church discipline, and demonstrate their

Liturgical Robes in New Zealand

Sandra Heffernan

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Liturgical dress worn by members of the Roman Catholic Church played an important part in daily life and religious observances, and rituals from birth to death, in colonial New Zealand. In 1838 Marist Catholic missionaries landed in the north of New Zealand, where most of the twelve Catholic mission stations were established. At this time seventy thousand Māoris were dispersed throughout the country, and there was a small European settlement of approximately twenty thousand, mostly in the ports a

Ceremonial and Religious Dress in Australia

Lynne Hume

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

While indigenous Australians have occupied the continent of Australia for over forty thousand years, the British, including convicts, only began arriving in 1788 on the First Fleet, and Christian clergy arrived with them. Religion, customs, and dress of Europeans in those early years of colonization were based on the motherland of Great Britain, the settlers being largely monocultural. Since then Australian ceremonial and religious dress has been characterized by considerable diversity, and in th

Dress and Religious Practices

Lynne Hume

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Global Perspectives 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Religious dress visually communicates to observers that the wearer believes in a certain set of religious principles and practices. The status distinctions that exist within any group are also visibly conveyed by dress, which sometimes articulates nuances in the power structure markedly. At the same time, a religious group’s ideology may emphasize simplicity and humility, with these aspects reflected in their choice of clothing.

Christian Secular, Monastic, and Liturgical Dress in the Eastern Mediterranean

Karel C. Innemée

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The first Christian communities were established around the Mediterranean in the first century c.e. At that time there was not yet a unifying structure. By the second century, most communities observed three ranks in the local hierarchy: an episkopos (bishop, literally overseer) as the head, presbyteroi (priests), and diakonoi (deacons). There was not yet any kind of distinctive garment that indicated rank. The first Council of Nicea (325 c.e.) brought together bishops from all over the Christian

Ethiopia

Peri M. Klemm

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Africa 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The array of dress styles in Ethiopia is vast. Often dress is meaningful on several levels and may indicate age, status, political membership, religious belief, and ethnic affiliation. Each culture within Ethiopia has its own unique style of dress. The abundance of dress styles in Ethiopia is largely due to the diversity of climate, geography, and culture. Ethiopian geography is divided into the highland and lowland regions. The Ethiopian population of seventy-five million is made up of some eigh

Politics and Dress: Women’s Religious Head Covers

Christina Lindholm

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Global Perspectives 2010

Encyclopedia entry

At first glance, politics and dress seem to be strange bedfellows. On closer study, however, it becomes clear that a wide variety of agendas are enacted through the medium of cloth and clothing, and none are more heated than debates on women’s head covers. Abraham Maslow situated clothing on the bottom tier of his hierarchy of needs based on the physiological requirements of people of all cultures from time immemorial. Throughout history examples abound from most countries of how humans have parl

The Virgin Mary and the Veil

Christina Lindholm

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Global Perspectives 2010

Encyclopedia entry

As much as the veil is fabric or an article of clothing, it is also a concept. It can be illusion, vanity, artifice, deception, liberation, imprisonment, euphemism, divination, concealment, hallucination, depression, eloquent silence, holiness, the ethers beyond consciousness, the hidden hundredth name of God, the final passage into death, even the biblical apocalypse, the lifting of God’s veil, signaling so-called end times. When veiling is forced—then en-forced—it is repression. Yet, as we see

Hispanic and Latino American

Josephine M. Moreno

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The heritage of Latinos living in the United States and Canada is a mixture of Spanish, Portuguese, European, Native, African, Asian, and other ancestry. Dress needs vary widely and are influenced in part by socioeconomic status, age, income, education, immigration status, faith, popular culture, and gender. Family values and faith play a significant role in Hispanic families and influence dress purchases, particularly for special occasion wear. Latinos also tend to be brand-conscious. Although a

Laws of Differentiation

Irvin Cemil Schick

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

A significant development in the history of Islamic dress is a series of laws that required non-Muslims living within Islamic states to wear distinguishing clothing. These are generally known as laws of differentiation (ghiyar). They were mainly aimed at the so-called dhimmi, or tolerated non-Muslim subjects, namely, Jews, Christians, and Zoroastrians. The term dhimmi does not include other, polytheistic groups, such as Hindus.

Dress Reform

Kristina Stankovski

Source: The Berg Companion to Fashion 2010

Encyclopedia entry

During the years following the English Civil War of 1642, various influential clothing-reform movements flourished. One of the nonconformist groups that emerged during this time was the Religious Society of Friends, commonly known as Quakers. The group’s founder, George Fox, established a set of social practices that were based on Christian ideologies and utopianism. The main thesis proposed by Fox was simplicity of appearance and lifestyle. His favor of spirituality over what he considered to be

Religion and Dress

Phyllis G. Tortora

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Organized religion, defined as an institutionalized set of beliefs about supernatural power or powers, has generally seen dress as a topic of concern. The degree to which dress is an essential element of worship and/or religious practice varies widely. Within a worldwide religion such as Catholicism or Islam, dress practices may be global or instead confined to a particular locality. In countries such as the United States and Canada, with populations that include immigrants from all over the worl

Utopian and Intentional Communities

Heather Van Wormer

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Intentional communities are social groups that are consciously formed with the intent of creating a new social order and worldview and are, to some extent, separated from the wider society in which they are found. Dress is an important aspect of life in intentional communities. Not only does dress set community members apart from those in the outside world, but it also functions to create solidarity among members within the group. Dress, as is the case with all material culture in intentional com

Religion and Dress

Nigel Yates, Dan Cohn-Sherbok and Dawoud El-Alami

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The wearing of special dress by all or some members of particular religions is commonplace throughout the world. In most cases, a distinction is made between the special dress worn by those officiating at religious services and that worn by those attending the services. In West Europe, the wearing of special dress within the different Christian churches—Eastern Orthodox, Roman Catholic, and Protestant—has been largely confined to the clergy or to members of religious orders of monks and nuns, alt

The Medieval Aesthetic Sensibility

Umberto Eco

Source: Classic and Modern Writings on Fashion 2nd Edition 2009

Book chapter

When the Scholastics spoke about beauty they meant by this an attribute of God. The metaphysics of beauty (in Plotinus, for instance) and the theory of art were in no way related. ‘Contemporary’ man places an exaggerated value on art because he has lost the feeling for intelligible beauty which the neo-Platonists and the Medievals possessed… . Here we are dealing with a type of beauty of which Aesthetics knows nothing.E. R.Curtius, European Literature and the Latin Middle Ages, translated by Will

Fashion Change as Search for Meaning

Annette Lynch and Mitchell D. Strauss

Source: Changing Fashion. A Critical Introduction to Trend Analysis and Meaning 2007

Book chapter

Trend-spotting is a little like the ancient Roman art of divination. You stir the ashes. You consult the entrails of birds. A pattern emerges, and perhaps even one that contains unexpected meanings about where the culture is headed.

Costa Rica

José F. Blanco

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Latin America and the Caribbean 2005

Encyclopedia entry

The earliest human settlements in Costa Rica probably date to between 12000 and 8000 b.c.e. Established sedentary villages appeared between 8000 and 4000 b.c.e., while organized cultures likely developed around 500 c.e. Basketry, twining, and netting date back to 5000 b.c.e., and loom weaving has been traced to around 1800 b.c.e. Jade carving was widely practiced in the area, but carvings were also created with quartz, serpentine, and slate. Metallurgical work in gold and copper was widespread. C

Dress of the Virgin of the Rosary in Eighteenth-century Peru

Kelly Mohs Gage

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Latin America and the Caribbean 2005

Encyclopedia entry

Spanish colonization of the Americas had a profound effect on all aspects of native people’s culture—particularly through religious art. The friars of all orders employed visual images, including those of the Virgin Mary, as didactic tools in educating and indoctrinating the native people, often commissioning native artists to produce images and sculptures of the Virgin to adorn church interiors. Pulling attributes and iconography from European and native religious and social traditions, the arti

Archangels of the Andes

Moira F. Harris

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Latin America and the Caribbean 2005

Encyclopedia entry

Scholars have written that Spain conquered Tahuantinsuyu (the Inca Empire) with the sword and cross, but art (and fashion) were not far behind. The mendicant friars who followed Francisco Pizarro and his men to South America were charged with converting to Christianity any indigenous people they met. The tenets of their faith were simpler to explain with images than words. In the last session of the Council of Trent in 1563, bishops had been advised to “retain sacred images in the temples and ins

Carnaval Costume in Brazil

Pravina Shukla

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Latin America and the Caribbean 2005

Encyclopedia entry

The predominantly Catholic country of Brazil has more people of African descent than any other nation except Nigeria. In Brazil, the slave trade was not abolished until 1888, resulting in a large population of formerly enslaved people who entered the country primarily through its first capital, Salvador. The complex Afro-Brazilian identity—at once Catholic, African, and Brazilian—is on display during public events in the cities, most prominently during the pre-Lenten Carnaval celebrations in Rio

An Athenian Wedding, Year 2000

Helen Bradley Foster

Source: Wedding Dress Across Cultures 2003

Book chapter

A couple may not marry during Lent. With this exception, a wedding may take place in any month, with May, June and September being the popular choices primarily because of the fine weather. A wedding may be held on any day, but most occur on weekends, especially on Sundays, the day preferred by priests. Because of the limited number of Sundays, three or four marriages commonly take place on the same day in a religious ceremony that lasts about thirty minutes.

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