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Secular Fashion In Israel

Oz Almog

Source: Dress and Ideology. Fashioning Identity from Antiquity to the Present 2017

Book chapter

national dress/costumeSabraIsrael, twentieth centuryIn national images depicting the early years of the State of Israel, the word “fashion” is deliberately associated with the unkempt pioneering sabra look: khakikhaki shorts and blue shirts characteristic of the socialist youth movements, pinafores and rubashka shirts influenced by Eastern European style, Bedouin kaffiyahkaffiyahs, biblical sandals, and dome-shaped caps known as kova tembel. To a large extent, this look became Israel’s national m

Rabbinical Dress in Italy

Asher Salah

Source: Dress and Ideology. Fashioning Identity from Antiquity to the Present 2017

Book chapter

The promulgation of sumptuary laws, regulating specific items of dress that might be worn by various individuals on certain occasions, is a well-known chapter of European social history from the late Middle Ages to the eighteenth century.On Jewish sumptuary legislation in general see: Salo Wittmayer Baron, The Jewish Community: Its History and Structure to the American Revolution, 3 vols, Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society, 1942; Louis Finkelstein, Jewish Self-Government in the Middle Ages,

Military Dress as an Ideological Marker in Roman Palestine

Guy D. Stiebel

Source: Dress and Ideology. Fashioning Identity from Antiquity to the Present 2017

Book chapter

Only a few instances from the Roman Empire actually provide scholars with near-complete assemblages of panoplies, and most rare of all are the remains that derived directly from conflict lands. In addition to the celebrated navy soldier from ce79 Herculaneum,R. Gore, “2000 Years of Silence: The Dead Do Tell Tales at Vesuvius,” National Geographic, 165 (1984), pp. 557–613; S. Ortisi “Pompeji und Herculaneum—Soldaten in den Vesuvsdäten,” Archäologie der Schlachtfelder—Militaria aus Zerstörungshoriz

Morocco

Cynthia J. Becker

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Africa 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Morocco has long been a crossroads between Europe, the Middle East, and sub-Saharan Africa, and dress reflects the richness of its history as well as its geographic and cultural diversity. Forty to sixty percent of the Moroccan population is Berber, and many Berbers have retained their indigenous language. After the Phoenicians and then the Romans settled in Morocco and encountered the Berbers, Arabs moved into Morocco in the seventh century, founding the city of Fes and gradually converting the

Sumptuary Laws

Reed Benhamou

Source: The Berg Companion to Fashion 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Sumptuary regulation is of two general types: prescriptive and proscriptive. The first defines what people must purchase, wear, or use, the second what they may not. Although both approaches limit choice, proscriptive laws can be seen as less onerous in so far as individual freedom is concerned since they imply acceptance of anything not expressly forbidden.

Tunisia

Meriem Chida

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Africa 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Tunisia lies on the Mediterranean Sea, bordered by Libya and Algeria. The earliest inhabitants, called the Imazighen, spoke Berber languages and predated the Phoenicians, the Romans, the Vandals, the Byzantines, and the Arabs. Until the early seventh century, Imazighen women wore a draped dress like the Greek chiton and the Roman toga, fastened with silver fibulae, with a woolen or leather sash wrapped around the waist. In the seventh century, Arabs brought Islam to Tunisia and influenced local d

Jews in the Melbourne Garment Trade

Anna Epstein

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

For a large part of the twentieth century the garment trade was an important industry in the southern Australian state of Victoria. Since clothing was a big part of the country’s manufacturing, the Jews of the garment trade made a large contribution to Australia’s economy. This multifaceted industry had its own economic and social history, gorgeous products, and camaraderie and color at its heart, Flinders Lane. It gave rise to the individualism, flair, entrepreneurial spirit, and sheer fun that

Middle Eastern

Mary H. Farahnakian

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The dress and fashion of Middle Eastern immigrants emphasize copying, retooling, and reinterpreting traditions and developing new identities in the United States and Canada. These changes are generally influenced by their immigration background, dress design, and values of traditional and nontraditional immigrants. They also include religious values and customs as well as types, significance, and appropriateness of dress fit and design.

Germany

Irene Guenther

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

German dress in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries was closely linked to French–German relations. Critics disapproved of affluent German women’s fondness for French styles. During the Napoleonic wars, German rural folk dress often featured prominently at national festivals, manifesting patriotism. Ironically, it was with the French occupation during this time that German fragmentation consolidated, bringing a sense of “Germanness.” Industrialization occurred rapidly in the German states. Afte

Ceremonial and Religious Dress in Australia

Lynne Hume

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

While indigenous Australians have occupied the continent of Australia for over forty thousand years, the British, including convicts, only began arriving in 1788 on the First Fleet, and Christian clergy arrived with them. Religion, customs, and dress of Europeans in those early years of colonization were based on the motherland of Great Britain, the settlers being largely monocultural. Since then Australian ceremonial and religious dress has been characterized by considerable diversity, and in th

Dress and Religious Practices

Lynne Hume

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Global Perspectives 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Religious dress visually communicates to observers that the wearer believes in a certain set of religious principles and practices. The status distinctions that exist within any group are also visibly conveyed by dress, which sometimes articulates nuances in the power structure markedly. At the same time, a religious group’s ideology may emphasize simplicity and humility, with these aspects reflected in their choice of clothing.

Jewish Dress in Central and Southwest Asia and the Diaspora

Esther Juhasz

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Jewish dress has been shaped by the Jewish code of law, halacha, and various types of contacts with other religions and cultures. The halacha deals in detail with the desired conduct of a Jew in everyday life, including explicit rulings and recommended attitudes on dress. No specific dress was ever mandated by Jewish law, and as a result no universal Jewish dress evolved. Some common principles are recognizable in a variety of styles of Jewish dress. In some places Jews played an active role in t

Yemeni Dress

Christina Lindholm

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Yemen has four main regions: Tihamah (an arid and flat coastal plain in the southwest), the western highlands (which boast diverse agriculture), the eastern highlands, and the Rub’ Al Khali, which means “the Empty Quarter.” This lies to the north and is the world’s largest sand desert, with summer temperatures of over 130 degrees Fahrenheit (54 degrees Celsius). Bab El-Mandeb, the southwestern coastal strait, links the Red Sea with the Indian Ocean and was an important trade corridor for three th

The Virgin Mary and the Veil

Christina Lindholm

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Global Perspectives 2010

Encyclopedia entry

As much as the veil is fabric or an article of clothing, it is also a concept. It can be illusion, vanity, artifice, deception, liberation, imprisonment, euphemism, divination, concealment, hallucination, depression, eloquent silence, holiness, the ethers beyond consciousness, the hidden hundredth name of God, the final passage into death, even the biblical apocalypse, the lifting of God’s veil, signaling so-called end times. When veiling is forced—then en-forced—it is repression. Yet, as we see

Dress in Modern Israel

Ayala Raz

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Dress in Palestine at the end of the nineteenth century and up until the establishment of the independent State of Israel in 1948 reflected the many changes that took place in the area during that time. The most prominent change was the end of the Ottoman Empire, which had ruled for over one hundred years, and the takeover by the British Mandate (1922) following the occupation of Palestine by the British Army in World War I (1917).

Laws of Differentiation

Irvin Cemil Schick

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

A significant development in the history of Islamic dress is a series of laws that required non-Muslims living within Islamic states to wear distinguishing clothing. These are generally known as laws of differentiation (ghiyar). They were mainly aimed at the so-called dhimmi, or tolerated non-Muslim subjects, namely, Jews, Christians, and Zoroastrians. The term dhimmi does not include other, polytheistic groups, such as Hindus.

Identity and Gender in Traditional Jewish Dress

Eric K. Silverman

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Over the past few decades, North American Jews have increasingly contested and reshaped norms of Jewish gender and identity through ritual and everyday dress. Novel patterns on prayer shawls allow Jewish women to challenge long-standing male privilege during prayer and in the synagogue while nonetheless asserting a commitment to religious tradition and continuity. Skullcap or yarmulke designs increasingly draw on U.S. pop culture to uneasily balance Jewish religious particularity with cultural as

Jewish Dress

Orpa Slapak and Esther Juhasz

Source: The Berg Companion to Fashion 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Halachah, the code of Jewish law, is based mainly on biblical precepts, which are considered the primary and most authoritative source for all Jewish laws. Since biblical precepts concerning dress are few, they determine only several aspects of Jewish costume. Later halakhic rulings regulated dress codes and interpreted the biblical injunctions.

Jewish Dress

Pamela Smith

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The history of the Jews in Central and East Europe is complex and diverse, and this diversity is reflected in the modes of dress that survived, developed, or fell into disuse over the centuries. In some parts of the region, Jewish communities became fully assimilated into the life of the country in which their ancestors had settled, and so their dress became indistinguishable from that of their neighbors of other religions. In other areas they maintained garments and dress practices that clearly

Religion and Dress

Phyllis G. Tortora

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Organized religion, defined as an institutionalized set of beliefs about supernatural power or powers, has generally seen dress as a topic of concern. The degree to which dress is an essential element of worship and/or religious practice varies widely. Within a worldwide religion such as Catholicism or Islam, dress practices may be global or instead confined to a particular locality. In countries such as the United States and Canada, with populations that include immigrants from all over the worl

Religion and Dress

Nigel Yates, Dan Cohn-Sherbok and Dawoud El-Alami

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The wearing of special dress by all or some members of particular religions is commonplace throughout the world. In most cases, a distinction is made between the special dress worn by those officiating at religious services and that worn by those attending the services. In West Europe, the wearing of special dress within the different Christian churches—Eastern Orthodox, Roman Catholic, and Protestant—has been largely confined to the clergy or to members of religious orders of monks and nuns, alt

Book chapter

In a nation involved in a constant struggle for its very existence, the topic of sandals recently stirred up quite a public debate. The ethics committee of the Israeli parliament, the Knesset, submitted a draft for a dress code, with special emphasis on footwear. A ban on wearing sandals in the Knesset chamber became an explosive issue. It was especially irritating for two members, who both wear sandals year-round for personal reasons, and as a recognizable sign of their ideological and political

Book chapter

The first time I encountered Holocaust shoes in a museum setting was in a display of thousands of leather shoes piled in room-sized cages at the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum in Washington, D.C. The shoes had been brought there from a former extermination camp in Poland. My impression, although uniquely my own, was remarkably similar to a story in Chicken Soup for the Jewish Soul about the writer’s pilgrimage to the Nazi extermination camps in Poland: (Green-baum 2001, 276–78)When I wal

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Book chapter

Only one biblical text deals with the halitzah ritual explicitly, namely the already mentioned Deuteronomy 25:5–10: (Author’s translation)(5) If brothers dwell together, and one of them dies, and he does not have a child [or: son, ben], the wife of the deceased shall not be married outside [the family] to a stranger [le’ish sar]. Her brother-in-law shall come upon her and take her as his wife and perform the duty of the brother-in-law. (6) And the first-born that she gives birth to shall be insta

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