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Charles James

Rio Ali

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Designer Biography

Hermès

Lauren Bowes

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Designer Biography

Ball Gowns

Emma Davenport

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Article

Ball gowns are considered to be the most extravagant category of evening dress. Although balls date back to the Middle Ages, and historically were seen as dance parties to celebrate all manner of occasions, they reemerged as a popular way to introduce eligible women and men into marriageable society during the mid-1800s. Competition for suitors centered on the expense and opulence of a woman’s ball gown. Subsequently, ball gowns have continued to represent ideals of romantic femininity. On the ca

Bill Blass, Spring/Summer 1984

Michelle Honig

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Article

This collection was all about simplicity, which led Nina Hyde at the Washington Post to comment, “Blass’s clothes have never been more simple, less contrived.” The hems were short because Blass believed that his couture customers had the money to keep their body in great shape. There were bra-like tops under conservative suits for day, and evening gowns in silk charmeuse draped in silk chiffon. Because of the simplicity of the clothes, the models’ hair was more extreme. Critics commended Blass’s

Norman Hartnell

Vanessa Semmens

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Designer Biography

Salvatore Ferragamo

Daphne Stylianou

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Designer Biography

Buying into Fashion: The Social Background

Geraldine Howell

Source: Wartime Fashion. From Haute Couture to Homemade, 1939–1945 2012

Book chapter

Azerbaijan—Urban Dress, the 1920s to the Twenty-First Century

Djurdja Bartlett

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The Azeri (Azerbaijani ethnicity) aristocracy and the nascent bourgeoisie and intelligentsia gradually introduced elements of Western styles into their dress beginning in the mid-nineteenth century, when the region was still part of the Russian tsarist empire. Europeanized dress was one of the elements within a wider discourse that challenged the old way of life and its long-held traditions and proposed modernization in all the fields of society. A new role for women was on the agenda of secular

Tibetan Jewelry

John Clarke

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

In Tibet before the Chinese invasion, jewelry, together with ornamented objects used in everyday life such as purses and chatelaines, formed the most visible statements of a person’s wealth and status. The nobility, consisting of a relatively small number of families, was able to afford the most lavishly decorated and finely worked pieces. Laymen drawn from the upper class, together with monastic officials with whom they worked in tandem, formed part of the Dalai Lama’s government. Since the time

Azerbaijan

Lala Eldarova

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Azerbaijan lies on the western shore of the Caspian Sea, at the southeastern extremity of the mountainous Caucasus region. It has borders with Russia, Georgia, Armenia, Iran, and Turkey. The development of Azerbaijani national dress reached its zenith in the nineteenth century, with the emergence of its own unique style, with many features being common to all parts of the country. The principles, rules, and customs governing its design, cut, and the way it should be worn reflected the unity of th

Hungary: Ethnic Dress

Ágnes Fülemile

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Throughout most of its history Hungary had a predominantly agrarian economy. The institutions of the feudal system had been only gradually eliminated during the nineteenth century. The dress of common people was strongly independent of general fashion influences. In Hungary there was a deep social gap between classes, and the dress of the agrarian population became modernized later than that of city dwellers. The most flourishing period of regional peasant dress was the nineteenth and early twent

Romania: Urban Dress, Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries

Angela Jianu

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Romania in the early twenty-first century encompasses two territorial and political entities that were known as the Romanian (or Danubian) Principalities of Wallachia and Moldavia before their unification in 1859 and their transformation into the Kingdom of Romania in 1866. Although the Romanian principalities retained their administration for some time under Ottoman influence, which began in the fourteenth century, in the seventeenth century the Ottoman authorities appointed their own rulers, an

Between East and West—Elite Fashions and Political Change in the Romanian Principalities, 1774–1850

Angela Jianu

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Foreign observers often remarked on the love of luxury among Greek and Romanian nobles at the Phanariot courts of Bucharest and Iasi. Details excepted, female and male figures looked very similar in long, ample vestments. When the Swedish painter Alexander Roslin painted Catherine the Great’s maid of honor, Moldavian Princess Zoe Ghika, in 1777, the sitter may have represented more than a pretty girl in exotic costume. The daughter of a former Phanariot prince of Moldavia, she had joined her fami

Trickle-Down

Susan B. Kaiser

Source: The Berg Companion to Fashion 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Class, Work, and Dress

Alexandra Kim

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

During the nineteenth century, clothing in West Europe was inextricably linked to a person’s class and occupation. Dress was constantly used to determine a person’s social status. Although there were obvious variations in occupational dress across the Continent, a worker’s clothing—whether in the countryside or the city—would have clearly indicated his or her place in the social hierarchy. Changing work patterns, a growing informality, and the fragmentation of the class structure in the twentieth

Social Class and Clothing

Katalin Medvedev

Source: The Berg Companion to Fashion 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Social class is a system of multilayered hierarchy among people. Historically, social stratification emerged as the consequence of surplus production. This surplus created the basis for economic inequality, and in turn prompted a ceaseless striving for upward mobility among people in the lower strata of society.

Hungary: Urban Dress up to 1948

Katalin Medvedev

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Hungary remained feudalist until the second half of the nineteenth century, delaying the growth of Hungarian urban fashion. Hungary is perhaps best known for colorful ethnic styles, the most renowned being male gala dress (díszmagyar). However, the elite kept abreast of European trends. In the first half of the nineteenth century, Hungary, within the Hapsburg Empire, was predominantly agricultural; fashionable town dress was mostly German-inspired. Pest and Buda—separate cities until 1873—had dis

Fashion in Belgrade, 1918 to 1941

Bojana Popović

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

In the wake of World War I, Serbia became part of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes (from 1929, the Kingdom of Yugoslavia), and its capital city, Belgrade, was proclaimed the capital of this new state, which was ruled by the Serbian Karadjordjevic dynasty. Despite economic and political tensions, the kingdom kept pace with the process of modernization that was in progress in the rest of postwar Europe, and Belgrade’s appearance and the routines of its inhabitants were changing very quick

Cypriot Dress

Euphrosyne Rizopoulou-Egoumenidou

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Cyprus is an island in the eastern Mediterranean, on the threshold between the Orient and the Occident. Different rulers from east and west have left their mark on the local culture and dress. European influence was prevalent during the period of the Lusignan (1191–1489) and Venetian (1489–1570) rule and remained traceable through the Ottoman rule (1571–1878). Out of this period, during which Oriental influence was strong, emerged the traditional Cypriot dress of modern times. The island entered

Early Noble Dress in Russia

Oksana Sekatcheva

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Early Russian dress in the period from the fourteenth to the seventeenth century is widely regarded as a dress of national identity and is generally termed “historic Russian costume.” Its development was completed by the middle of the sixteenth century, and it existed almost unchanged until the end of the seventeenth century, when it was officially ousted in favor of European dress during Peter the Great’s reforms.

Poland: Urban Dress up to 1900

Anna Straszewska

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

In the early sixteenth century, Renaissance styles became popular in Poland, with Eastern influences emerging from the union between the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. Hungarian connections were likewise significant, Hungary being influenced by the Orient through the Ottoman Empire. During the sixteenth century, Polish-Lithuanian noblemen started adopting Oriental attire called “Sarmatian dress,” believing themselves descendants of the ancient Sarmatians who, according to Pli

England

Naomi E.A. Tarrant

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

In 1800, the people of England dressed in the general West European clothing style that was worn by all fashionable people. Wealth determined what a person could afford to wear but not the style. There was no folk dress, so the general impression was that wealthy people wore the same styles as their workers, with only the quality showing the difference. The poor acquired garments from secondhand clothes dealers or as gifts from wealthier family members or friends, charities, and employers, as wel

Al-Washsha, a Medieval Fashion Guru

Gillian Vogelsang-Eastwood

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The early medieval period in Southwest Asia was a time of change, with an increase in wealth and trade, especially via Central Asia with China, along the so-called Silk Road. In addition there was political and social stability following the establishment of the Abbasid dynasty in 749 c.e. The Abbasid caliphate flourished for two centuries before going into decline and was one of the great Muslim caliphates of the Arab Empire, known for its arts, literature, and architectural achievements, and al

Slovakia: Urban Dress

Magdaléna M. Zubercová

Translated by Jana Levická

František Pál

George Hirner

L’ubica Chorváthová

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The Slovak Republic was created in 1993 after the former Czechoslovakia split into two independent states. The largest ethnic minorities are Hungarians and Roma people. Portraits show that during the Napoleonic wars, the women of Hungarian society in Slovak lands started to wear light, fine dresses with low-cut bodices and bare shoulders. In the Empire period, cultivated and elegant “Viennese fashion” became desirable. In the nineteenth century, Budapest tailors ambitiously devoted themselves to

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