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Multiple Meanings of the ‘Hijab’ in Contemporary France

Malcolm D. Brown

Source: Dressed to Impress. Looking the Part 2011

Book chapter

The affaire du foulard first came to prominence in the autumn of 1989, shortly after France had celebrated the bicentenary of the Revolution, when three Muslim schoolgirls in the town of Creil, not far from Paris, were expelled for wearing the hijab, and refusing to remove it. In so doing, they were judged to have infringed secular Republican principles, or, more accurately, the principle of laïcité, which had been developed from the ideas of the Revolution, and was held to be an important guaran

Hawaiian Dress Prior to 1898

Linda Boynton Arthur

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Hawai’i is an archipelago in the Pacific Ocean, a chain referred to simply as Hawai’i or the Hawaiian Islands. The six major islands are Oahu, Kauai, Maui, Molokai, Lanai, and the Big Island, that is, Hawai’i. The latter name is rarely used, in order to reduce confusion, since Hawai’i (the archipelago) became an American state in 1959. Until the late eighteenth century the peoples who inhabited these islands shared a common culture, although they were somewhat divided politically in that each had

Malawi

Barbara W. Blackmun

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Africa 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Landlocked Malawi is situated in southeast Africa. It has a large lake, a varied topography and climate, and a diverse population. Dress traditions reflect the country’s checkered history, involving foreign influence through migration, trade, and invasion. Nguni warriors from Natal conquered lakeside farming communities in the 1850s, and Arab and Yao slave traders later devastated the land, which became a British protectorate in 1890. Previously, the Maravi and Yao peoples were renowned ironworke

Caribbean Islanders

José F. Blanco

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Caribbean immigrants have contributed greatly to the multicultural and multilingual diversity of the United States and Canada for a number of years. Often grouped either with other Hispanics or with African Americans, Caribbean people are actually part of a complex mosaic of cultures, languages, and dress practices. The Caribbean, named after its main pre-Columbian inhabitants, the Carib, has been shaped by the encounter of several cultures, including native groups such as the Puerto Rican Taínos

Miao/Hmong in the United States

Mary Alice Chaney

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. South Asia and Southeast Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The Hmong came to the United States as refugees from Southeast Asia. They trace their ancestry to China where they are called Miao. The U.S. Hmong population is concentrated in California, Minnesota, and Wisconsin. They are known for and recognized by the colorful and elaborately decorated clothing ensembles that they wear to celebrate their New Year. There are three Hmong subgroups, which derive their names from the colors and patterns used in their special-occasion dress: White, Green/Blue, and

Asian American

Usha Chowdhary

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada 2010

Encyclopedia entry

In 2004, Asian Americans represented 33 percent of the total immigrants in the United States and 50 percent in Canada. Even though previous studies show that immigrants acculturate over time and are assimilated to the new cultural values, their ethnic identity continues to be important for selected parts of their everyday life. Ethnic identity allows association between and among people based on their shared worldviews, social practices, and commonality of past experiences and helps with giving a

Norwegian Folk Dress in the United States

Carol Colburn

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Emigration from Norway to the United States lasted for approximately one hundred years, from 1825 to 1925. Norway’s terrain provided only three percent arable land; for Norwegian immigrants, the fertile plains in America’s Midwest were an attractive destination. Few packed distinctively Norwegian clothing, knowing that following local styles would indicate their intention to blend in. However, Norwegian dress echoed among the Norwegian American population through continued contact between Norway

Rural Dress in Australia

Jennifer Craik

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

A distinctive Australian sense of dress for Europeans is often considered to be bush wear, that is, clothes that have become synonymous with rural life and the outback. The typical elements of this rural dress include moleskin trousers, elastic-sided boots, cotton or wool shirt, bush jacket (in denim, wool, or leather) or waterproof oilskin coat, and a wide-brimmed felt hat. These garments are typically worn by men, so particular traits of masculinity are woven into the image of Australian bush w

London as a Fashion City

Edwina Ehrman

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

London is part of a global fashion system, known in international circles for its fashion heritage and diversity, its hybrid sense of style, its vibrant consumer culture, and the creativity of its fashion graduates. It is equated with originality and experimentation and with styles that draw on a wide vocabulary of cultural references. The media tend to the innovative and radical, and the exposure given to designers who embody these qualities weights perceptions of London. The city plays a key ro

Settler Dress in Australia

Damayanthie Eluwawalage

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Clothing was a problematic aspect of the social and cultural life of colonial Australia from the time of first settlement in 1788. Apart from military officers and civil officials, much everyday clothing was working-class wear. Yet fashionable dress was soon to become a key aspect of cultural practice, emphasizing the social status and power of the elite and aspirational elite, as well as being a symbolic indicator of class. Status signals were important in this fledgling society made up of dispa

Jews in the Melbourne Garment Trade

Anna Epstein

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

For a large part of the twentieth century the garment trade was an important industry in the southern Australian state of Victoria. Since clothing was a big part of the country’s manufacturing, the Jews of the garment trade made a large contribution to Australia’s economy. This multifaceted industry had its own economic and social history, gorgeous products, and camaraderie and color at its heart, Flinders Lane. It gave rise to the individualism, flair, entrepreneurial spirit, and sheer fun that

Middle Eastern

Mary H. Farahnakian

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The dress and fashion of Middle Eastern immigrants emphasize copying, retooling, and reinterpreting traditions and developing new identities in the United States and Canada. These changes are generally influenced by their immigration background, dress design, and values of traditional and nontraditional immigrants. They also include religious values and customs as well as types, significance, and appropriateness of dress fit and design.

American Immigrants of West European Origin

Judy Zaccagnini Flynn

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The dress of North American immigrants from Western Europe is a reflection of the evolution of their sociocultural experience as they went from their homelands to the New World. Immigration has existed from the early times of settlement in North America to the present. Western Europe (defined in 1890 as Italy, Spain, France, Great Britain, Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Germany, Netherlands, Austria-Hungry, Switzerland, France, and Luxembourg) provided the largest number of immigrants to the United Sta

Icelandic Knitted Apparel

Jennifer Graham

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Liturgical Robes in New Zealand

Sandra Heffernan

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Liturgical dress worn by members of the Roman Catholic Church played an important part in daily life and religious observances, and rituals from birth to death, in colonial New Zealand. In 1838 Marist Catholic missionaries landed in the north of New Zealand, where most of the twelve Catholic mission stations were established. At this time seventy thousand Māoris were dispersed throughout the country, and there was a small European settlement of approximately twenty thousand, mostly in the ports a

The Influences of Ottoman Culture

June Hill

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

From its initial base east of the Bosphorus in the early 1300s, Ottoman rule gradually extended across East Europe, replacing the Byzantine Empire as the region’s major power. In 1676, the Ottoman Empire stretched from Crete and Anatolia to Dalmatia, Poland, and the Ukraine. It was to be 250 years before the empire reverted to its founding state, culminating in the establishment of the Republic of Turkey in 1923. At the height of its empire, Ottoman products such as embroidery were fashionable in

Colonial Influence on Dress in the Indian Subcontinent

Donald Clay Johnson

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. South Asia and Southeast Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Queen Elizabeth I issued a royal charter to the Company of Merchants of London Trading into the East Indies (commonly known as the East India Company) on the last day of 1600. Thus began the official interactions between England and India, which two centuries later resulted in British political domination of the Indian Subcontinent. What the British wore in India overwhelmingly reflected London fashion rather than incorporating approaches to clothing that had evolved over millennia in India. This

Jewish Dress in Central and Southwest Asia and the Diaspora

Esther Juhasz

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Jewish dress has been shaped by the Jewish code of law, halacha, and various types of contacts with other religions and cultures. The halacha deals in detail with the desired conduct of a Jew in everyday life, including explicit rulings and recommended attitudes on dress. No specific dress was ever mandated by Jewish law, and as a result no universal Jewish dress evolved. Some common principles are recognizable in a variety of styles of Jewish dress. In some places Jews played an active role in t

Migrant Workers, Production, and Fashion

Sandra Klopper and >Fiona Rankin-Smith

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Africa 2010

Encyclopedia entry

South Africa’s migrant labor system first began in the 1850s when African men from rural communities flocked to the newly discovered diamond and gold fields on the Witwatersrand in search of work. Originally miners brought their own clothing to work in the mines, primarily shorts. Eventually the mining companies, to protect their human resources, decided it was in their best interest to provide rubber boots, coveralls, and hard hats to protect miners working in a very dangerous occupation. By the

Acadians

Jenna Tedrick Kuttruff

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The Louisiana Acadians were originally French peasants who immigrated in the early 1600s to Acadie, the modern Canadian provinces of Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, bringing their simple dress and methods of production with them to the New World. In 1755, Acadie was surrendered by the French to the English, who subsequently expelled all Acadians who would not submit to the English Crown. Following the ensuing exodus, Acadian exiles sought to preserve their cultural identity by seeking out isolated

Tradition and Fashion

Elizabeth D. Lowe

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada 2010

Encyclopedia entry

One might think that because Canada and the United States are countries that can be considered technologically advanced and would be characterized as thoroughly modern societies, the role of fashion in the lives of these countries’ residents would be strong and the place of tradition would be minimal. But to understand where and how tradition and fashion contrast, complement, and intersect in these modern Western societies, it is necessary to begin by exploring the meaning of these concepts.

South Asian Diaspora

Hazel A. Lutz

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. South Asia and Southeast Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The South Asian diaspora extends into many different nations around the globe. The rate of migration accelerated during the colonial and postcolonial eras, when many distinct communities, and communities within communities, were established around the world. A diaspora is a triadic relationship among a local group of dispersed people, the homeland from which they have come, and the new location in which they reside. Being a member of a diaspora entails a paradoxical feeling of being both at home

Liberia

Jane Martin

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Africa 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Liberian dress and fashion in the twenty-first century is based on a heritage from indigenous African societies, from returned African Americans and their descendants, and from the mixed communities that developed throughout nearly two centuries. The dress codes of those who governed Liberia were derived from the southern United States. Western dress was the dress of choice. In the later twentieth century, lappa suits, boubous, and Vai shirts indicated the increased engagement of Liberia with oth

Geographical and Geopolitical Introduction

Margaret Maynard

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The Pacific region covers a vast geographic area. From the continent of Australia it reaches its southernmost point at Antarctica, while to the north it extends to the shores of Asia, and to the west, the Americas. It includes all the island groups of Micronesia, Polynesia, and Melanesia. The first inhabitants arrived between forty thousand and sixty thousand years ago and populated Australia and New Guinea with successive waves of Austronesians, settling island after island. The Māori were among

Hispanic and Latino American

Josephine M. Moreno

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The heritage of Latinos living in the United States and Canada is a mixture of Spanish, Portuguese, European, Native, African, Asian, and other ancestry. Dress needs vary widely and are influenced in part by socioeconomic status, age, income, education, immigration status, faith, popular culture, and gender. Family values and faith play a significant role in Hispanic families and influence dress purchases, particularly for special occasion wear. Latinos also tend to be brand-conscious. Although a

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