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Underwear

Grace Evans

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The fashionable silhouette has gone through bewildering changes during the last two hundred years, and these would not have been possible without the shapes created beneath. Underwear and outerwear progressed in tandem. Underwear designers responded to prevailing styles of fashionable dress, and fashion designers built and relied upon the capabilities of structural underpinnings as they developed. These changes were, in turn, influenced by key social, economic, and technological developments, whi

Liturgical Robes in New Zealand

Sandra Heffernan

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Liturgical dress worn by members of the Roman Catholic Church played an important part in daily life and religious observances, and rituals from birth to death, in colonial New Zealand. In 1838 Marist Catholic missionaries landed in the north of New Zealand, where most of the twelve Catholic mission stations were established. At this time seventy thousand Māoris were dispersed throughout the country, and there was a small European settlement of approximately twenty thousand, mostly in the ports a

Art and Dress

Peter McNeil

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Academic art and popular dress emerge from different structural and intellectual systems. Nonetheless, fashion in the early twenty-first century often appears to be like art and art to be like fashion. Artists are viewed as the ideal collaborators with fashion designers and the fashion industry, injecting the type of cultural capital they embody into products that have become synonymous with innovation and novelty. Artists throughout the twentieth century intervened in fashion culture, their anti

Jewelry

Gabriele Mentges

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Jewelry, an anglicized version of the old French word jouel, means, in its broadest sense, body adornment. This definition is also valid for clothing, and both make the human body culturally visible. Like dress, jewelry belongs to particular cultural bodily techniques whose interpretation depends on culture, time, and space. However, clothing and jewelry differ profoundly in regard to their practices and meaning. The differences in regard to dress and jewelry concern, first, material and shape; s

Influence of the Arts

Jo Ann Stabb

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The relationship of art to dress in any part of the world and at any time is complex, as is the case in the United States and Canada. Both art and dress reflect and share not only aesthetic elements but also parallel cultural, social, philosophical, geographical, technological, political, gender, and religious influences of any particular era. This confluence, or zeitgeist, characterizes the spirit of the times and defines the prevailing style. Yet even while sharing the formal visual elements of

Paua Shell Costume Jewelry in New Zealand

Petronella J.M. van de Wijdeven

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

New Zealand’s best-known costume jewelry is made from the iridescent shell of the paua (the Māori name for Haliotis iris), a species of abalone only found in the sea around New Zealand. Paua shell was a material used by Māori to highlight the eyes of figures in their carving. Alfred Atkinson in Wellington first introduced the use of paua shell to New Zealand jewelry in the early years of the twentieth century. He produced individually crafted pieces of shell jewelry, which sold through a fine art

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