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Marilyn Monroe

Joanne B. Eicher

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Article

Marilyn Monroe, born Norma Jeane Mortenson, sometimes using Baker (1 June 1926–5 August 1962), began her career as a model. Signing a film contract in 1946, she played minor roles, receiving attention for her beauty, curvaceous body, and mode of dressing. With prominence, she became a sex symbol. She adeptly helped create her visual persona by learning makeup and strategic wardrobe techniques. She relied on costumers like William Travilla to help construct her image in films like Gentlemen Prefer

Salvador Dalí

Lucy Moyse

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Article

Mystifying, intriguing, thought-provoking: the layered work of the Spanish artist Salvador Dalí (1904–1989) appeared across painting, drawing, film, and sculpture. He is best known for his involvement in the artistic and literary movement of surrealism, which explored the unconscious. However, Dalí’s increasingly commercial endeavors and lifelong interest in dress led him to become hugely influential in fashion, from his meticulously flamboyant self-presentation to his collaborations with couturi

Statement Jewelry in Contemporary Catwalk Fashion

Julia Rea

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Article

Statement jewelry is defined by its role as a communicator of meaning, extending beyond jewelry’s traditional function as a decorative medium in order to express status, culture, and personality. As a “genre” it is characterized by its exaggerated proportions, bold shapes and colors, and its employment of a wide range of materials other than conventional precious metals and gemstones. By focusing on notable examples from 1990s catwalk fashion, this exploration will trace the historical and cultur

The People and Places of Costume Production

Clare M. Wilkinson-Weber

Source: Fashioning Bollywood. The Making and Meaning of Hindi Film Costume 2014

Book chapter

Cultural fields are vulnerable to the effects of time in that no field can be expected to remain the same, even as its products and its rationale appear consistent. The essential framework of costume production in Mumbai has remained the same for nearly one hundred years, including its institutional figures (on-set costumers, or dressmen) and local economic contingencies (the vast number and versatility of tailors in the city). But any conversation with retired personnel brings to light the chang

Costume and Character: Wearing and Being

Clare M. Wilkinson-Weber

Source: Fashioning Bollywood. The Making and Meaning of Hindi Film Costume 2014

Book chapter

My clothes may express the dressmaker, but they don’t express me.

Ceremonial and Special-Occasion Dress

Michaele Thurgood Haynes

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Global Perspectives 2010

Encyclopedia entry

There is a difference between the terms ceremonial and special-occasion dress. The latter is an out-of-the-ordinary event, possibly unique. Societal conventions create parameters as to what is acceptable wear at these times, but personal clothing choices made by the participants help make it a special occasion. Ceremonial refers to repeated events occurring within a set framework, a somewhat rigid and formalized series of actions. In anthropological terms, a ceremony is generally more suitably na

Gender

Gertrud Lehnert

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The basic distinction between female and male dress in the Western world is between women’s skirts and men’s bifurcated trousers. Only in the twentieth century was this abandoned—but in one direction, since, even today, men do not wear skirts, despite some attempts by fashion designers. This does not indicate that trousers are more natural for men, but that in the West, they denote supremacy and masculinity. From the late Middle Ages onwards, increasing emphasis was put on gender differentiation

Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, and Transgendered Persons

Andrew Reilly

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Reliable information about dress in the lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgendered (LGBT) community has become available only recently. For many years negative attitudes held by much of the non-LGBT population resulted in beliefs and stereotypes that were often superficial and inaccurate. Research into the dress of members of the LGBT community is now providing a more detailed and nuanced view of the subject. When a person “comes out” or acknowledges an LGBT identity, it is often a mixed blessing;

Understanding Women and Their Wardrobes

Sophie Woodward

Source: Why Women Wear What They Wear 2007

Book chapter

The question ‘does this go?’ invariably involves the twin question ‘is this me?’, as the particular styles, colours and textures come to form part of a woman’s sense of who she is and who she can be through clothing. Although the items are usually bought in the mass market, the particular range of items in the wardrobe is always unique, as the mass-produced items sit alongside the dress borrowed from a friend or gifted by an auntie. Furthermore, as women wear particular items of clothing, they co

Hanging Out in the Home and the Bedroom

Sophie Woodward

Source: Why Women Wear What They Wear 2007

Book chapter

The fieldwork was carried out in two urban sites in Britain—London and Nottingham—over a period of fifteen months. There are clear differences in the two sites in terms of scale and population, with London’s population exceeding seven million and Nottingham’s being only 266,988 (2001 Census data). Both locations possess ethnically diverse populations, with the whole gamut of financial resources, yet this is more marked in London, as there is a far greater mobility in the population, not only in t

But What Were You Wearing?: Clothes and Memories

Sophie Woodward

Source: Why Women Wear What They Wear 2007

Book chapter

This chapter considers the ways in which the clothing in the wardrobe is used by women as a means to work through their biography; in the case of Theresa, the act of ordering the wardrobe into memories and former selves is part of her wider strategies of using the wardrobe as a means to order and organize her life. A quarter of the items of clothing in her wardrobe are no longer worn. Characteristic of other women with quantities of such clothing, Theresa has experienced a biographical and sartor

Looking Good, Feeling Right The Aesthetics of Getting Dressed

Sophie Woodward

Source: Why Women Wear What They Wear 2007

Book chapter

Through considering the material microscopics of particular women’s personal aesthetics, the focus is upon how clothing mediates this relationship between the individual woman and the outside world. As such, it is the medium through which women consider their social roles and normative ideals of how they should look. As clothing is worn next to the body, such external factors cannot remain abstract, but rather enter the realm of the intimate as a private dilemma for the individual. In looking at

Looking in the Mirror: Seeing and Being Seen

Sophie Woodward

Source: Why Women Wear What They Wear 2007

Book chapter

All the women I worked with wanted to appear as if they had not made an effort. Even Vivienne, who was discussed in chapter 4, a woman whose approach to her appearance was clearly idiosyncratic, is an example of this trend whereby women adopt a rhetoric of authenticity, stating they don’t want to look ‘made-up’, ‘fake’ or ‘not like me’. Despite having this attitude, every one of these women was engaged in the act of constructing her appearance, whether it was by having her hair cut in a particula

Mothers, Daughters, Friends: Dressing in Relationships

Sophie Woodward

Source: Why Women Wear What They Wear 2007

Book chapter

My fieldwork makes clear that the most important relationship that is negotiated through clothing is that between mothers and daughters, from the household provisioning of children, the socialization into certain clothing preferences and a continued, yet redefined involvement in adulthood. As the women I worked with were all over the age of eighteen (although I carried out informal conversations with women’s children), the mother-daughter relationship is discussed primarily in terms of how women

Fashion: Making and Breaking the Rules

Sophie Woodward

Source: Why Women Wear What They Wear 2007

Book chapter

The ephemeral nature of fashion would appear at first glance to be at odds with the long-term relationship to clothing that women have to many of the items of clothing in their wardrobes. This chapter looks at how women balance their desire to be fashionable with their often entrenched personal aesthetics as they connect the fleeting with the grounded. The ways in which a long-term relationship to clothing is inextricably linked to fashion are evidenced in the links between personal biographies a

Dressing Up and Dressing Down: Can You Wear Jeans?

Sophie Woodward

Source: Why Women Wear What They Wear 2007

Book chapter

Irrespective of women’s backgrounds, how much money they have or what their background is, all women I worked with had some items they wear all of the time and some items they wear rarely. On average, the range of items that women are selecting from on a daily basis—their ‘active’ wardrobe—is less than 38 per cent. Most women sub-divide their clothing into ‘home’, ‘work’ and ‘going-out’ clothing, which makes very small the actual number of items that women are choosing from to go to work or to go

Conclusions

Sophie Woodward

Source: Why Women Wear What They Wear 2007

Book chapter

The centrality of this dialectic between safe, easy acts of dressing and the desire to be different and creative means that the act of constructing an identity through clothing is an ambivalent one. This notion resonates with discussions over fashion more broadly, as the constant fluctuations in styles have led to it being characterized as ambiguous in its shifts between innovation and conformity (Simmel, 1971), revealing and concealing the self (Sennett, 1971), sexuality and modesty, androgyny a

Introduction

Sophie Woodward

Source: Why Women Wear What They Wear 2007

Book chapter

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