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Couture to Pop and Nostalgic Fashion, 1953–1980

Fiona Anderson

Source: Tweed, 2018, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

Between the early 1950s and the late 1970s, the production of woolen cloths in Britain was still primarily concentrated in Yorkshire wool textiles industryYorkshire, Scotland and the West of England woolen industryWest of England.G. F.Rainnie, The Woollen and Worsted Industry: An Economic Analysis (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1965), pp. 29–31. Yorkshire continued to suitsfor menform by far the largest manufacturing region and Brearley, AlanBrearley and Iredale, John A.Iredale concluded in 1977 that

Feminist Ideologies in Postmodern Japanese Fashion: Rei Kawakubo Meets Marie Antoinette in Downtown Tokyo

Ory Bartal

Source: Dress and Ideology. Fashioning Identity from Antiquity to the Present, 2017, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

In the 1970s, the modernistic social paradigm collapsed in many post-industrial countries. In Japan, it resulted in the falling apart of the homogeneous culture that hailed collectivism. Various groups began to form. In 1970s Tokyo, the Karasu-Zoku (raven tribe) emerged as a parallel to the British Punk movement. Alongside the karasu-zoku was the an-non-zoku, a young and fashionable “tribe” consisting of women who enjoyed reading the mass communicationmagazinesmagazines an-an and non-no. The idea

Fashion and Feminism

Henriette Dahan-Kalev and Shoshana-Rose Marzel

Source: Dress and Ideology. Fashioning Identity from Antiquity to the Present, 2017, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

civil rightsgenderDuring the French Revolution, dress became an important issue: one of the ways in which revolutionaries’ values were to be obtained and symbolized was through the adoption of class-less styles of clothing, which expressed the ideals of Fraternity, Liberty, and Equality.

Minimalism: Donald Judd Or Ikea?

Adam Geczy and Jacqueline Millner

Source: Fashionable Art, 2015, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

Minimalist artists constructed simple, monochromatic, geometric objects of formal symmetry, characterized by an absence of traditional composition. Minimalism was an extreme abstract art, not imitative but solipsistic, self-referential: it was unto itself, harking back to the idea of truth to materials whose lineage can be located in the Russian Constructivists (particularly Rodchenko, AleksandrRodchenko and El Lissitzky) through to Moore, HenryMoore, Hepworth, BarbaraHepworth, Gabo, NoamGabo, Pe

Donna Summer

Amanda M. B. Pajak

Source: Fashion Photography Archive, 2015, Fashion Photography Archive

Article

Donna Summer (1948–2012), born LaDonna Adrian Gaines of Boston, Massachusetts, was titled the “Queen of Disco” during her lifetime and beyond. Predominantly active as a singer-performer during the disco era of the mid- to late 1970s, Summer’s vocal talent and performance aesthetic defined an era of music in addition to an evolution of fashion tied to the hedonistic nightlife of New York City and Los Angeles that was synonymous with the excess and extravagance of the decade. During live performanc

Radical Shoemaking and Dress Reform From Fabians To Feminists

Annebella Pollen

Source: Dress History. New Directions in Theory and Practice, 2015, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

The sandal-wearing, vegetarian ‘crank’ that Orwell referred to so disparagingly in the 1930s remains a stock figure of ridicule in the present; ‘sandal-wearing’ along with ‘muesli-eating’ and ‘Guardian newspaper-reading’ have become standard accusatory descriptors in British conservative journalism for those perceived to be of a certain liberal disposition. In the interwar period, Orwell’s invective was specifically prompted by a trip to Letchworth Garden City; the ‘simple-lifers’ that he encount

Fun With Pins and Rope: How Caroline Baker Styled the 1970s

Alice Beard

Source: Fashion Media. Past and Present, 2013, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

A double-page photographic spread from Nova magazine picturing a host of fashion editors arriving at the 1969 autumn/winter Paris collections suggests an interest in fashion’s ‘backstage’ that perhaps pre-empts today’s mood of fascination, where stylists are held up as celebrities and fashion editors are the subjects of feature films (see Figure 2.1). The recognisable names are there—among them, Diana Vreeland (American Vogue), Ernestine Carter (Sunday Times) and a young Grace Coddington (British

Fashion and the Time of Modern Femininity

Ilya Parkins

Source: Poiret, Dior and Schiaparelli. Fashion, Femininity and Modernity, 2012, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

Peter Osborne asks, ‘What kind of time does modernity inscribe?’Osborne, The Politics of Time, p. 5. His book-length answer is foundational in a small but crucial body of literature about the temporal character of modernity. This literature establishes that the basic challenge of modern temporal consciousness is its reflexivity: modernity becomes the first era equipped to recognize itself as an era, and to distinguish itself from earlier eras—the past—while opening toward the future.In discussing

Elsa Schiaparelli: Glamour, Privacy and Timelessness

Ilya Parkins

Source: Poiret, Dior and Schiaparelli. Fashion, Femininity and Modernity, 2012, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

The opening lines of Schiaparelli’s 1954 autobiography, Shocking Life, are curious. Referring to herself in the third person, as she does intermittently throughout the text, Schiaparelli writes, ‘I merely know Schiap by hearsay. I have only seen her in a mirror.’ElsaSchiaparelli, Shocking Life (1954; reprint, V&A Publications, 2007), p. vii. Here, with surprising bluntness, she sets herself up as someone who is ‘split’, having a rich inner life characterized by multiple visions of self.For a tho

Christian Dior: Nostalgia and the Economy of Feminine Beauty

Ilya Parkins

Source: Poiret, Dior and Schiaparelli. Fashion, Femininity and Modernity, 2012, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

Dior’s initial stylistic ‘innovation’, though, had a complex temporal logic. As the strong reactions to it—both favourable and unfavourable—testified, it undeniably represented a return of a much older, if not precisely historically definable, silhouette. Its temporality was captured in an apparent contradiction: embraced as ‘revolutionary’, the New Look’s groundbreaking quality derived from its unabashed reclaiming of what might be read as a more conservative, older ideal of feminine beauty. Jus

Azerbaijan—Urban Dress, the 1920s to the Twenty-First Century

Djurdja Bartlett

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

The Azeri (Azerbaijani ethnicity) aristocracy and the nascent bourgeoisie and intelligentsia gradually introduced elements of Western styles into their dress beginning in the mid-nineteenth century, when the region was still part of the Russian tsarist empire. Europeanized dress was one of the elements within a wider discourse that challenged the old way of life and its long-held traditions and proposed modernization in all the fields of society. A new role for women was on the agenda of secular

Belgium

Karlijn Bronselaer

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

Belgium played a vital role in the industrialization of the European textile industry. Belgian society changed very quickly due to industrialization during the first half of the nineteenth century. From about the 1820s on the fashionable silhouette in West Europe was the hourglass. Although the average Belgian had neither time nor money for fashion, improved production methods and sewing machines made corsets more affordable. Later, the Art Nouveau or Jugendstil movement (ca. 1890–1920), with its

Body and Beauty

Patrizia Calefato

Translated by Sveva Scaramuzzi

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

The concept of human “race” was extended for the first time from its meaning of “lineage” or “descent” by Georges Cuvier (1769–1823) who gave it a classificatory, hierarchical meaning. During the nineteenth century, this conception led to racial biology and eugenics. Notwithstanding the researchers’ intentions, the idea of “race” constituted the basis for nineteenth- and twentieth-century racist ideologies. The idea of feminine beauty also evolved in relation to the genesis of racism. Fashion bec

Lesbian and Gay Dress

Shaun Cole

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

Although same-sex sexual activity has been occurring at least as long as the human race has been recording social activity, it was not until the late nineteenth century that terminology based on sexual identity replaced definitions and descriptions of sexual acts. Psychiatrists, sexologists, and human rights campaigners such as Richard von Krafft-Ebing, Karl Heinrich Ulrichs, and Karl Maria Kertbeny developed notions that same-sex attraction was related to identity and conceived terms such as urn

Dress Reform

Patricia A. Cunningham

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

Throughout the nineteenth century and in the early decades of the twentieth century, the basic silhouette of women’s dress in the United States went through many changes. Many people accepted this ever-changing succession of fashions as a natural phenomenon, an inevitable outward expression of progress; fashion was a sign of modernity. The changing styles of dress and its silhouette were largely dependent on various undergarments—corsets, petticoats, crinolines, bustles, and other supporting devi

Body and Dress

Angela Durante and Jenny Ellison

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

All human cultures engage in some form of dress and adornment. Although our bodies and the items we put on them might appear to be separate, they in fact have a great deal in common and are considerably intertwined. A dressed body represents a complex set of negotiations between an individual, the fashion system, and the social context in which they exist. Codes of dress set parameters but do not entirely determine how individuals dress. The body and dress are mutually constitutive—dress adds soc

Porn Chic

Annette Lynch

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Global Perspectives, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

The mainstreaming of pornographic imagery into fashion and popular culture at the turn of the millennium in Britain and the U.S. signaled a dramatic cultural shift in the construction of both femininity and masculinity. For men and women, raunch became the new cool. This article draws from a diverse range of examples including film, popular tabloids, campus culture, mass-media marketing campaigns, Facebook profiles, and art exhibits to explore expressions and meanings of porn chic as embodied wit

Early Superhero Comic Book Costumes

Jonathan S. Marion and James Scanlan

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Global Perspectives, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

What collectors and historians know as the Golden Age of comics began with the debut of Superman in 1938, quickly followed by other superheroes including Batman, the Human Torch, and Namor in 1939, Captain Marvel in 1940, and Captain America and Wonder Woman in 1941. Although comic books outside the superhero genre remained popular, the burgeoning popularity of superheroes coincided with and reflected social shifts in art, politics, social mores, and sartorial technology. DC and Marvel—which by t

Sexualization of Preteen Girls in Norway

Mari Rysst

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

Between 2000 and 2006, the ideals of teenage culture and youth influenced fashion for female children as well as grown women. The age group between nine and twelve years, the so-called tweens, has been the topic of recurrent debates in Western media discourses as they are viewed as acting “older than their age.” The expression points to the existence of cultural norms concerning age, dress codes, and appearance related to social classification. The concern is particularly addressed to girls when

Research Approaches

Lise Skov and Marie Riegels Melchior

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Global Perspectives, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

Dress and fashion are rich and varied fields of study. Some scholars refer to them as “hybrid subjects” because they bring together different conceptual frameworks and disciplinary approaches, including those from anthropology, art history, cultural studies, design studies, economics, history, home economics (in the early twenty-first century more likely to be known as “family and consumer studies” or “human ecology”), literature, semiotics, sociology, visual culture, and business studies. Invari

Dress and Culture in Greenwich Village

Deborah Saville

Source: Twentieth-Century American Fashion, 2008, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

Editors’ Introduction: When the Gilded Age ended on the eve of the First World War, some Americans expressed dissatisfaction with the conventional life. Intellectuals in Greenwich Village in New York City began to practice alternative lifestyles based on radical feminism and new psychological thought. As discussed by Deborah Saville, their style, identifiable as American bohemian, signified their ideological leanings. Young Greenwich Village women’s style included artists’ smocks, peasant blouses

Introduction

Yuniya Kawamura

Source: Fashion-ology. An Introduction to Fashion Studies, 2005, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

The terms ‘fashion’ and ‘clothing’ tend to be used synonymously, but while fashion conveys a number of different social meanings, clothing is the generic raw materials of what a person wears. The term ‘fashion’ in English, or ‘la mode’ in French, stands out from the other words, such as clothes, garment, attire, garb, apparel and costume, which are often referred to in relation to fashion.

Background Reading

Samantha Holland

Source: Alternative Femininities. Body, Age and Identity, 2004, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

Since the key overall theme of the research is femininity (how it is rendered, played out, resisted and understood), here I review ideas about and definitions of femininity and how these definitions do (or do not) link to the research. ‘What is femininity?’ is a question which has exercised feminist writers for decades and many feminist writers have attempted to pin down the elusive concept of femininity. For example, Brownmiller asserts that ‘femininity, in essence, is a romantic sentiment, a no

Categories of Unconventional

Samantha Holland

Source: Alternative Femininities. Body, Age and Identity, 2004, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

I have always felt that I was different, you know. I never ever fitted into those patterns, the proper girl pattern … it’s like a paper pattern, I see it in my mind, there are particular lines you have to stay in, and you end up making just this very particular outfit … maybe there are three choices in the packet but they’re all dead similar

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