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Social and cultural influences

Chelsea Rousso and Nancy Kaplan Ostroff

Source: Fashion Forward. A Guide to Fashion Forecasting, 2nd Edition, 2018, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

long--term forecastingFashion forecasters project long-term social and cultural shifts, population trends, technological advances, demographicsdemographic movement, and developments in consumer behaviorconsumer behavior in long-term forecasting, future studies, or macro trendsmacro trends. A macro trend is a large-scale, continuous shift in consumer interest.

Internationalization of Retailing

Brenda Sternquist and Elizabeth B. Goldsmith

Source: International Retailing, 3rd Edition, 2018, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

After studying this chapter, you should be able to:

The Environment of Fashion

Elaine Stone and Sheryl A. Farnan

Source: The Dynamics of Fashion, 5th Edition, 2018, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

Both manufacturers and retailers try to identify and select Target market,target markets for their goods. Target markets are specific groups of potential customers that a business is attempting to turn into regular customers. Businesses attempt to determine who their customers are, what those customers want, how much the customers are willing to pay for goods, where potential customers are located, and how many targeted customers there are.

Defining the Customer

Linda Tain

Source: Portfolio Presentation for Fashion Designers. Fourth Edition, 4th Edition, 2018, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter

The importance of focusing on a specific market and customer is directly linked to the job search process. Each clothing company has a reputation for a particular kind of clothing. This is not to say a company cannot make more than one product. Those that have divisions or licensees offer a variety of merchandise. Some companies have diffusion or secondary lines that capture “the look” the designer is known for while serving a different price point and category. For example, Ralph LaurenRalph Lau

Paris, Capital of Fashion?

Valerie Steele

Source: Paris Fashion. A Cultural History, 3rd Edition, 2017, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

Fluctuat nec mergitur

The Look: Design Concepts And Style Directions

Evelyn L. Brannon and Lorynn Divita

Source: Fashion Forecasting, 4th Edition, 2015, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

In fashion you are supposed to hate what you have loved before. I cannot do that.

Byblos

Elizabeth Kutesko

Source: Fashion Photography Archive, 2015, Fashion Photography Archive

Designer Biography

Sustainable Sourcing

Shona Barton Quinn

Source: Sustainable Fashion What’s Next?. A Conversation about Issues, Practices and Possibilities, 2nd Edition, 2015, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

SHONA BARTON QUINN is an apparel industry executive currently serving as the Sustainability Leader at Eileen Fisher. This chapter examines how ethical, social, and environmental issues are addressed by apparel companies. Ms. Quinn holds a Master’s degree in Industrial Ecology from the Yale School of Forestry & Environmental Studies.

Retail Locations

John Donnellan

Source: Merchandise Buying and Management, 4th Edition, 2014, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter

The earliest retail shopping districts were unplanned clusters of stores that evolved in the centers of cities. Known to many as downtown, a central business district (CBD), or urban core, is a vital hub of commerce and transportation. The great department store emporiums were founded in CBDs. Many cities had two or more department stores that rivaled each other for market dominance by distinguishing themselves in terms of size or prestige.

Inspired to Design

Evelyn L. Brannon

Source: Designer’s Guide to Fashion Apparel, 2011, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter

“Fashion is in the sky, in the street. Fashion has to do with ideas, the way we live, what is happening.”

Somalia

Heather Marie Akou

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Africa, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

Somalia is located in the Horn of Africa. The northern coast is less than one hundred miles from the Arabian Peninsula and shares a great deal of history and dress with that region. In the cities, houses are built with thick walls to keep out the heat; in the deserts, nomadic people live in shelters constructed of branches covered with leather or plastic, and distinct differences in dress exist. Nomadic dress has typically been more practical and flexible, consisting of leather, cotton wrappers,

Iraqi Dress

Ulrike Al-Khamis and Saad Lafta Hami

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

Iraq is one of the largest countries in southwestern Asia. It is bordered by Iran to the east, Turkey to the north, Syria and Jordan to the west, and Saudi Arabia and Kuwait to the south. Iraq’s capital is Baghdad. Geographically, the country combines three distinct regions: fertile mountain regions in the north, the rich alluvial valleys of the Euphrates and Tigris Rivers, and expansive, arid desert plains in the west. Both the terrain and the bordering countries have had an influence on dress.

Omani Dress

Julia M. Al-Zadjali

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

The English-speaking travelers of the past referred to Oman as the hidden corner of Arabia, yet Oman was and remains well known to its neighbors. It has an elaborate and rich history in the region, and the striking similarities to Oman’s neighbors that are found in dress throughout the country suggest that Oman has experienced many cultural, trade, and economic friendships over the centuries, which have left their mark. It is only in the early twenty-first century that attention is being paid to

Pakistan

Nasreen Askari

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. South Asia and Southeast Asia, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

Pakistan, seat of one of the civilizations of the ancient world, was created as a country in 1947; historically, however, its location has made it a crucible in which influences from Greece, Turkey, Iran, Afghanistan, Central Asia, and China have fused with the indigenous traditions of the region. The regional dress and textile traditions of Pakistan, the Pathan, the Punjabi, the Baluch, and the Sindhi, have evolved a range of forms, techniques, and designs that is a distillation not only of loca

Bosnia and Herzegovina: Ethnic Dress

Svetlana Bajić

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

Ethnic dress in Bosnia and Herzegovina, which preserved rather archaic and diversified items of clothing, mostly belonged to the Dinaric type (the dress of western Bosnia and Herzegovina); the central Bosnian type (the dress of the areas around the Bosna River, east of the Drina River, westward through the Lasva River valley up to the town of Travnik, and southward to Mount Ivan); and the Pannonian type (the dress typical of the Posavina area along the right bank of the Sava River and the lower p

Fashion under Socialism

Djurdja Bartlett

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

The relationship between dress and Socialism started in Soviet Russia following the 1917 Communist Revolution. When Soviet-style Socialism was introduced in East Europe in 1948, dress became an important ideological and practical issue in the countries under Soviet political control. However, the styles of garments, and the discourses in which they were embedded, were not homogeneous in the Soviet Union and the East European countries during the seventy-two years of Communist rule. Both similarit

Serbia: Ethnic Dress

Jasna Bjeladinović

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

In its rich creative textiles, its role in everyday life and in providing ethnic identity, as well as its visual and aesthetic values, ethnic dress is one of the most valuable and beautiful creations of the cultural heritage of the Serbs. Serb ethnic dress is known mostly due to preserved collections of clothing sets from the nineteenth century and the first decades of the twentieth century and is characterized by a great variety of forms, trimmings, ornaments, and colors. Its splendor is obvious

Poland: Ethnic Dress

Anita Broda

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

It is generally considered that peasants’ dress became distinct from that of other classes beginning in the fifteenth century. Dress quickly became a symbol of group values. A phenomenon typical in Polish folk culture was the borrowing of elements from higher classes, seen in folk dress with rich baroque detail. The peak development of folk dress in many parts of Poland occurred in the second half of the nineteenth century and was connected with peasants being granted the freehold of land; festiv

Regional Differences in Dress and Fashion

Nancy O. Bryant

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

Fashion professionals believe that there are regional differences in dress and fashion trends in the United States and Canada. However, objective data are hard to find, as scholars have paid little attention to regional differences within these territories. National retail firms are likely to evaluate sales in different regions in order to provide a range of stock that will appeal to their customers. Trade publications report the sales volume of items in various regions. Fashion reporters use the

Greenland

Cunera Buijs

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

The extremes of the Arctic climate set Greenland dress apart from dress in the rest of West Europe. It is made from the skins and furs of animals and birds and is highly adapted to the conditions and lifestyle of the Arctic people. Even so there are distinctive regional dress cultures of the West Greenlanders (Kilaamiut), Northwest Greenlanders (Inughuit), and East Greenlanders (Tunumiit). It was only in the twentieth century that the dress of Greenlanders began to be influenced by dress in the r

Moldova

Jennifer Renea Cash

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

The history of dress in Moldova requires a brief historical introduction. At the beginning of the twenty-first century, Moldova refers to the Republic of Moldova, which in its turn is best understood by distinguishing two subregions: Bessarabia and Transnistria. The ethnic majority in both regions is Moldovan (that is, Romanian), and many customs and traditions, including those related to dress and adornment, are shared between the two regions. Nevertheless, the political history of the regions w

Tibetan Jewelry

John Clarke

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Asia, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

In Tibet before the Chinese invasion, jewelry, together with ornamented objects used in everyday life such as purses and chatelaines, formed the most visible statements of a person’s wealth and status. The nobility, consisting of a relatively small number of families, was able to afford the most lavishly decorated and finely worked pieces. Laymen drawn from the upper class, together with monastic officials with whom they worked in tandem, formed part of the Dalai Lama’s government. Since the time

India

Jasleen Dhamija

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. South Asia and Southeast Asia, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

The different geoclimatic conditions and rich ethnic mix in India have led to various dress styles, stemming from migrations of peoples from Central Asia and China, and possibly the Goths. The strongest clothing tradition for women is draping, unstitched cloth being considered sacred. Although India absorbed various cultures, external factors did not impact greatly on it until incursions by Mahmud of Gazna (997 c.e.). Influence from Afghans, Turks, and Arabs heralded the introduction of Islam, br

Dress in Egypt in the Twentieth Century

Betty Wass El-Wakil

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Africa, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

Egypt has been ruled by foreign powers seeking to control its resources for much of the country’s history. The governing powers throughout history represented the elite, who served as a major influence on styles and fashions in clothing and dress. From the late eighteenth century onward, the French and the British had been attempting to displace the Turkish Ottoman rulers (1517–1798) and gain control over Egypt. The French under Napoleon invaded and occupied Egypt from 1798 to 1805. The Ottoman s

Philippines: North

George R. Ellis

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. South Asia and Southeast Asia, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

The mountain mass comprising part of the north of Luzon, the largest and northernmost island of the Philippines, is known as the Gran Cordillera Central. Its inhabitants arrived at various periods and are known by various names, the earliest recorded being in Spanish. In one sense their dress is homogenous. Women’s basic clothing consists of a tapis (skirt), while men wear loincloths; both are sometimes complemented by jackets. Blankets are widely worn, for warmth and as finery. Hats, headdresses

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