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Assessing the Impact of Clothes Rationing

Geraldine Howell

Source: Wartime Fashion. From Haute Couture to Homemade, 1939–1945 2012

Book chapter

Evacuation

Geraldine Howell

Source: Wartime Fashion. From Haute Couture to Homemade, 1939–1945 2012

Book chapter

Omani Dress

Julia M. Al-Zadjali

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The English-speaking travelers of the past referred to Oman as the hidden corner of Arabia, yet Oman was and remains well known to its neighbors. It has an elaborate and rich history in the region, and the striking similarities to Oman’s neighbors that are found in dress throughout the country suggest that Oman has experienced many cultural, trade, and economic friendships over the centuries, which have left their mark. It is only in the early twenty-first century that attention is being paid to

Children’s Wear in Australia

Michelle Bakar and Vicki Karaminas

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Sydney department store mail order catalogs and clothing advertisements from the late nineteenth to the twenty-first centuries provide information regarding clothing available for Australian children. However, they refer mainly to the relatively affluent middle class. Australian life was often more informal than North American or British life; the climate necessitated practical styles. Turn-of-the-century catalogs assumed that English tastes would appeal to Australians and that mothers primarily

Morocco

Cynthia J. Becker

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Africa 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Morocco has long been a crossroads between Europe, the Middle East, and sub-Saharan Africa, and dress reflects the richness of its history as well as its geographic and cultural diversity. Forty to sixty percent of the Moroccan population is Berber, and many Berbers have retained their indigenous language. After the Phoenicians and then the Romans settled in Morocco and encountered the Berbers, Arabs moved into Morocco in the seventh century, founding the city of Fes and gradually converting the

Children’s Clothing

Colleen R. Callahan

Source: The Berg Companion to Fashion 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Overview of Taiwan

Ching-Yi Cheng and Hsu-Chun Su

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The impact of Confucian philosophy on all aspects of Chinese life is evident in the attire of the Han people of Taiwan, specifically as regards the notion of the Doctrine of the Mean, which emphasizes personal introspection and emotional control, focused on cultural nurturing and the rejection of human vanity. Dress preserves modesty by covering the body and obscuring its shape. Importance is placed on inner beauty, the term for which literally means “charm”—the spiritual and cultural quality hop

Botswana

Deborah Durham

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Africa 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Botswana lies north of South Africa and is extensively covered by the Kalahari Desert. Ethnic groups extend into Namibia, Angola, and South Africa, due to earlier migrations resulting from land degradation or climate change. This fluidity was sometimes reflected in dress; some adopted the clothing of new neighboring groups, while others maintained traditional practices. In precolonial times, peoples such as the Bushmen and Herero wore leather garments adorned with shells and beads. Bodies were de

Overview: Hong Kong

Valery M. Garrett

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Until the late twentieth century the British colony of Hong Kong remained detached from events in China, especially in the rural New Territories. Farmers, wearing traditional dress, grew rice and vegetables, while fishermen sold their catch in local ports. Working people wore hard-wearing, dark clothing suitable to their tough lives. Most wore practical jackets with loose trousers, hemp being a popular fabric. Symbolism is important in Chinese folklore, and children’s clothing was embroidered wit

Festival Dress in Japan

Gloria Granz Gonick

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Matsuri, the Japanese term translated as “festivals,” are days set aside by a community for the purpose of honoring and interacting with its kami, or Shinto protector deity or deities. Shinto is considered the indigenous religion of the Japanese islands, and matsuri are Shinto events. Most matsuri are held at intermittent intervals during the calendar year, dictated by local traditions and by the felt need to obtain the support and protection of the kami for the coming period. Ritual interaction

Overview of the Ryūkyūs

Kristine M. Kamiya

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The 160 islands of the Ryūkyū archipelago extend from the southern shores of Japan to Taiwan. The forty-nine inhabited islands are divided into groups: Okinawa, Miyako, Yaeyama, Senkaku, and Daito. Inhabited for at least thirty thousand years, most of their history involved being caught in power struggles between China and Japan, then between Japan and the United States. Ryūkyūan dress is regularly overlooked as having specific identity, possibly partly because the traditional ryūsō (robe), is co

Serbia: Urban Dress, 1830 to 1941

Mirjana Menković

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

At the beginning of the nineteenth century, many Serbs, especially in the towns, adopted Oriental, more precisely Levantine, types of dress. The Turkish authorities, in their desire to impose their culture as a universal model throughout the Ottoman Empire, did not object to their non-Muslim subjects’ adoption of their cultural patterns, including their style of dress. This was one way to achieve a unified general model within Ottoman society, a society that was widely diversified in terms of the

Children’s Masquerade Costumes

Simon Ottenberg

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Africa 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Children’s masquerades in Africa south of the Sahara most often occur in the western and central areas—the major regions of adult masquerading—although some are found in southern Africa. Most performances are by boys; while girls’ masquerades are rarer, they have not been as well reported in the past due to gender bias. In children’s masquerades, as in adult ones, the performers’ dress and mask are generally considered as a whole and have one name. Child masqueraders may play musical instruments

Switzerland

Sigrid Pallmert

Translated by Kirsten Warner

Philipp Thüring

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

As a multicultural country, dress in Switzerland has been characterized by a cosmopolitan outlook and adoption of international influences. Bourgeois styles have been dominant, but at various times communities of radical thinkers and avant-garde artists have made their mark on Swiss dress styles. For the rural population, regional and ethnic dress has been very important, to the extent that Swiss folklore has had a considerable influence on the perception of Switzerland. This is true even in the

Children and Adolescents in the United States

Jo Barraclough Paoletti

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Children’s clothing can be especially revealing of a culture’s beliefs and values because it is so often used not only to signify the wearer’s identity and group association but also to teach cultural patterns to the young. The fashions worn by North American children and youth reveal a history of increasing emphasis on individuality expressed through consumer goods.

Sexualization of Preteen Girls in Norway

Mari Rysst

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Between 2000 and 2006, the ideals of teenage culture and youth influenced fashion for female children as well as grown women. The age group between nine and twelve years, the so-called tweens, has been the topic of recurrent debates in Western media discourses as they are viewed as acting “older than their age.” The expression points to the existence of cultural norms concerning age, dress codes, and appearance related to social classification. The concern is particularly addressed to girls when

Children’s Dress in China

Naomi Yin Yin Szeto

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Children are the treasures of Chinese society. From the imperial court and the elite class to the peasants, objects and activities related to the body adornment of children embodied the aspirations and blessings of their parents and older generations. Traditional Chinese children’s attire includes scaled-down versions of adult clothing, as well as a range of specific garments. Although China has a recorded history of almost four thousand years, the surviving pieces of children’s clothing dating p

Children’s Clothes

Viveka Berggren Torell

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The notion that children represent the future has influenced children’s dress for a long time. During the Enlightenment, childhood started to be seen as an important, separate period in a person’s life that ought to be devoted to a playful existence. At that time, philosophers advocated clothes allowing free movement of the body, to make it possible for children to develop according to their “inner path” and thereby become sensible adults. These ideas later reverberated in the twentieth century,

School Uniforms in New Zealand

Elaine Webster

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

New Zealand has a strong and continuing tradition of school uniform in secondary (high) schools. Nearly everyone going to school in New Zealand since the 1940s wore a uniform for between five and thirteen of their formative years, although their experiences are likely to have been different from those of their parents and the next generation. The meanings and the functions of school uniforms are culturally and historically specific, and in New Zealand they altered considerably over the twentieth

Hausa in Nigeria and Diaspora

Norma H. Wolff

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Africa 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The Hausa are spread across West Africa but are concentrated in the arid savanna regions of northwestern Nigeria and adjoining Niger, an area referred to as Hausaland. The Hausa language, spoken as a native tongue by an estimated twenty-two million people, is the most widely spoken language in sub-Saharan Africa and is a lingua franca to over fifty million. While basically an agricultural society, the Hausa are best known for their control over long-distance trade networks of West Africa. Because

The Upward Training of the Body from the Age of Chivalry to Courtly Civility

Georges Vigarello

Source: Classic and Modern Writings on Fashion 2nd Edition 2009

Book chapter

From the Middle Ages on, every failure of physical uprightness has been attributed to two main categories: the stigma of deformity, sanctioned by the attention given to strength and aesthetic qualities, and the lack of the proper deportment prescribed mainly by socialized ethics. In both cases, however, medieval comments were unpolished and hasty, even weak compared with those which would be made in the sixteenth century. The strongest and most valiant knight was lost if disabled – “he falls to t

Modern Maya Children’s Dress

Traci Ardren

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Latin America and the Caribbean 2005

Encyclopedia entry

In Maya culture children are considered a gift to be cherished. Many families are quite large, and older children grow up taking care of their siblings and learning household tasks at an early age. Girls as young as eight often weave using a backstrap loom, a loom used for indigenous manual weaving, or spin thread from wool and cotton. Boys begin to hunt small game and help in cornfields about the same age. Clothing is used to express ideas about village and ethnic identity, as well as the strict

The Nasca on the South Coast of Peru

Mary Frame

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Latin America and the Caribbean 2005

Encyclopedia entry

Knowledge of how people dressed in the Nasca region during the early phases of the Nasca period (1–300 c.e.) is reconstructed largely from archaeological sources. The garments themselves have been preserved in burials and ritual deposits, and technical studies of the garments reveal how they were made. In the middle and late phases (300–600 c.e.), textile preservation is too sporadic to provide an accurate overview of Nasca dress. Nasca people embellished their woven clothing with dyeing, embroid

Children’s Day: The Fashionable Performance of Modern Citizenship in China

Stephanie Hemelryk Donald

Source: Fashioning the Body Politic. Dress, Gender, Citizenship 2002

Book chapter

This essay is concerned with the performance of citizenship in China, an authoritarian collective society in transition to a market economy with socialist characteristics. I argue that the performance of citizenship here refers to the ways in which fashion is used by urban children as an articulation of their relation to the state, its norms and histories, but also to their wider social sphere. Given the high level of adult gatekeeping in children’s access to fashion, to public spaces and to mate

The Child, the Corset, and the Construction of Female Sexuality

Leigh Summers

Source: Bound to Please. A History of the Victorian Corset 2001

Book chapter

endured sullenly the row that ensued when my soft-shelled condition was discovered; was forcibly re-corseted; and as soon as possible went away and took them off again. One of my governesses used to weep over my wickedness in this respect. I had a bad figure and to me they were instruments of torture; they prevented me from breathing, and dug deep holes into my softer parts on every side. I am sure no hair shirt could have been worse to me.Ibid. G. Raverat, Period Piece, Faber & Faber, London, 19

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