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Identity, role and the Mask

Barbara Brownie and Danny Graydon

Source: The Superhero Costume. Identity and disguise in fact and fiction, 2016, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

The function of a costume or mask is to “disguisedisguise, protect or transform” (Wilsher, 2007, p. 12). For superheroes, the mask serves all three of these functions. It identity constructionreligiontransforms the wearer from ordinary civilian to superhero, disguising him in order to protect the identity of his alter ego, and those he cares about. The duality of the superhero’s identity is bound up in his costume. His public face, the mask, conceals his private face, hidden underneath.

Dressing up, dressing down: A spectacle of otherness, and the ordinariness of the civilian alter-ego

Barbara Brownie and Danny Graydon

Source: The Superhero Costume. Identity and disguise in fact and fiction, 2016, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

™ and © DC Comics

Two: Thinking Critically: A History and Conceptual Examination of Fashion Branding

Joseph H. Hancock

Source: Brand Story. Cases and Explorations in Fashion Branding, 2nd Edition, 2016, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter

New ads began to appear showing clothing that reflected the current fashion, with each advertisement trying to vie for the almighty dollar. At this time the French philosopher Roland Barthes suggested that advertising was creating a new level of existence for fashion. Barthes developed a theory that has since been called “The Fashion System,” which states that a garment is present at three distinct levels: the real garment or actual thing; the terminological garment, which signifies the basic ter

Introduction—why write a book about sunglasses?

Vanessa Brown

Source: Cool Shades. The History and Meaning of Sunglasses, 2015, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

As a lecturer in visual culture in a fashion department, I had observed that sunglasses have also been remarkably resilient to changes in fashion and indeed in the sartorial languages of cool. Since sunglasses became fashionable in the early twentieth century, they have remained a powerful component of the fashionable or cool image; in fact, it seems sunglasses are almost synonymous with fashion, underscored by the iconic images of fashion elite like Anna Wintour and Karl Lagerfeld, both recogniz

Seeing the blur—perception, cool, and mechanized speed (1910–present)

Vanessa Brown

Source: Cool Shades. The History and Meaning of Sunglasses, 2015, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

speedindustrialised consciousness; panoramic perception; Virilio, PaulAlthough the now-ubiquitous image of bikini, shades, and sun-lounger might suggest that the ideal wearer of sunglasses enjoys the luxury of being blissfully inert, the dynamic power, excess, and seductive glamor of men and women speeding along in shades is undeniable—from the tough sheen of Marlon Brando in The Wild Ones to twenty-first century pop acts like Britney SpearsBritney Spears in “Toxic,” where impenetrable diamond-st

Seeing the cyborg—eye-shading, cool, and the hi-tech body (1910–present)

Vanessa Brown

Source: Cool Shades. The History and Meaning of Sunglasses, 2015, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

Exploring speed in the last chapter has already enabled us to consider some aspects of the relationship between sunglasses and modern technologytechnology. But this relationship goes further. Sunglasses became a more general sign of encounters with the wonders and perils of modern technology; in the early days of TV advertising, sunglasses were worn by immaculate, 1950s housewives shading their eyes from the terrifying brilliance of whites achieved with innovative washing powders.

Seeing in the dark—sunglasses and “outsider” cool (1940s–present)

Vanessa Brown

Source: Cool Shades. The History and Meaning of Sunglasses, 2015, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

Many of the most evocative images show sunglasses worn in the dark, indoors, possibly because in these images we are forced to acknowledge their more oblique functions. Layers of darkness and blackness are compounded by dark frames with dark lenses in many of these images; think of Miles Davis in a murky club, in a dark suit, what light there is just highlighting the sheen of his skin against the intense glossy blackness of his shades.

Heading for the shade—the spread of outsider cool (1950s–present)

Vanessa Brown

Source: Cool Shades. The History and Meaning of Sunglasses, 2015, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

outsiderSunglasses were tactically used by people who were “outside” the goals and means of dominant society, as part of an articulation of a dissonant style which held an attraction just as great as that of those sunny images of “straight” success and leisure. This chapter will show how the more complex connotations of “outsider cool” became desirable and were appropriated by the “mainstream” in the 1950s and 1960s and beyond. Sunglasses could act as a sign of a “bettered self”—but they also sta

Seeing in the “eclipse”—sunglasses, cool, and the absence of meaning (late 1950s–present)

Vanessa Brown

Source: Cool Shades. The History and Meaning of Sunglasses, 2015, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

Warhol, Andyglamorempty (or hollow) glamorThe light is artificial and mirrors are provided, but not windows, because the characters must be protected from bleak, bruising reality.

Sunglasses and cool—conclusions

Vanessa Brown

Source: Cool Shades. The History and Meaning of Sunglasses, 2015, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

Before sunglasses, certain modernitychangechanges were taking place which created an environment in which they could become functionally and symbolically useful. The city, as an exemplar of modern life, was a place of new opportunities for display, self-fashioning, and casual voyeurism, as well as new levels of sensory and psychological stimulation which threatened to swamp the individual, and from which some kind of protection was required. This initially came in the form of a “blasé attitude,”

A Stylish History of Jazz: 1900–1960

Alphonso D. McClendon

Source: Fashion and Jazz. Dress, identity and subcultural improvisation, 2015, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

jazzorigins ofNew Orleansslave performancesBechet, Sidneyon slave performances/New Orleansartinfluence of AfricanAfrican ritualsAfrican art/dressDecades before the Civil War, a gathering of inspired people seeking self-determination initiated the birth of a musical genre that flourished throughout America. Congo SquareCongo Square in New Orleans, Louisiana is the highly renowned ground where slaves gathered for spiritual communion on free Sunday. By 1800, these assemblies swelled to six hundred i

Narcotics and Jazz: A Fashionable Addiction

Alphonso D. McClendon

Source: Fashion and Jazz. Dress, identity and subcultural improvisation, 2015, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

There has been a narrative of narcotics in American popular culture. Narcotics are one of the five classes of drugs regulated by the Controlled Substances Act (CSA)Controlled Substances Act (CSA) in the United States. Classified as a Schedule I substance under the CSA, 21 U.S.C. § 812, heroin has “a high potential for abuse, no currently accepted medical use in treatment in the United States, and a lack of accepted safety for use under medical supervision” (Drug Enforcement Administration 2012a).

Personality and the Fashion Consumer

Patricia Mink Rath, Stefani Bay, Richard Petrizzi and Penny Gill

Source: The Why Of The Buy. Consumer Behavior and Fashion Marketing, 2nd Edition, 2015, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter

While our perceptions and attitudes play an important part in how we choose fashion goods, our personalities also influence our actual purchasing behavior. As we defined in the previous chapter, personality is made up of those individual psychological characteristics that routinely influence the way people react to their surroundings, including how they make buying decisions. In addition, while personalities are lasting, they can change, through maturing, or after an accident, illness, or other v

Fashion, Costume and Narrative Tropes in TV Drama

Helen Warner

Source: Fashion on Television. Identity and Celebrity Culture, 2014, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

The use of fashion in Sex and the City and Ugly Betty is bound up with notions of performativity and ‘excess’. Ugly Betty relies upon an ‘excessive’, ‘camp’ aesthetic which foregrounds its own construction and in so doing adopts an ambiguous attitude towards the notion of the ‘authentic’ self—at times entirely rejecting it in favour of an ‘image-based’ identity. This image-based identity is presented as potentially subversive and resistive, challenging the assumption that the so-called postmodern

Fashioning The Past: Gender, Nostalgia and Excess in ‘Quality’ Period Drama

Helen Warner

Source: Fashion on Television. Identity and Celebrity Culture, 2014, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

We always have two reactions to every episode of Mad Men. There’s the reaction to the story and characters, and then there’s the reaction to the costuming.

The Fall and Rise of Erotic Lingerie

Dana Wilson-Kovacs

Source: Dressed to Impress. Looking the Part, 2011, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

The ways in which the body is packaged and visually exhibited are an essential part of consumerism. With a tradition that can be traced back to the eve of modern times, consumerism cannot fully account for the unprecedented attention surrounding the clothing of the body, and the multitude of codes, readings and interpretations accompanying its display. The cultural practices that define the body influence its representations and contemporary ideas of femininity and masculinity. These ideas are re

Fashion under Socialism

Djurdja Bartlett

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

The relationship between dress and Socialism started in Soviet Russia following the 1917 Communist Revolution. When Soviet-style Socialism was introduced in East Europe in 1948, dress became an important ideological and practical issue in the countries under Soviet political control. However, the styles of garments, and the discourses in which they were embedded, were not homogeneous in the Soviet Union and the East European countries during the seventy-two years of Communist rule. Both similarit

Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, and Transgendered Persons

Andrew Reilly

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

Reliable information about dress in the lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgendered (LGBT) community has become available only recently. For many years negative attitudes held by much of the non-LGBT population resulted in beliefs and stereotypes that were often superficial and inaccurate. Research into the dress of members of the LGBT community is now providing a more detailed and nuanced view of the subject. When a person “comes out” or acknowledges an LGBT identity, it is often a mixed blessing;

Research Approaches

Lise Skov and Marie Riegels Melchior

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Global Perspectives, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

Dress and fashion are rich and varied fields of study. Some scholars refer to them as “hybrid subjects” because they bring together different conceptual frameworks and disciplinary approaches, including those from anthropology, art history, cultural studies, design studies, economics, history, home economics (in the early twenty-first century more likely to be known as “family and consumer studies” or “human ecology”), literature, semiotics, sociology, visual culture, and business studies. Invari

Does Fashion Need a Theory?

Ingrid Loschek

Source: When Clothes Become Fashion. Design and Innovation Systems, 2009, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

What do Marcel Duchamp’s Urinoir, which he interpreted as the art object Fountain in 1917, and a dress full of holes that Julien McDonald created, which he defined as a lace dress in 1997, have in common? Neither work ‘functions’ without the underlying tension between what is visible and the statement made about it. In 1917, Duchamp submitted the urinal as an artwork for the annual exhibition of the Society of Independent Artists in New York. His claim was that the context—the art exhibition, the

When Is Fashion?

Ingrid Loschek

Source: When Clothes Become Fashion. Design and Innovation Systems, 2009, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

Due to the creative and social definition of fashion, it is affirmed as ambivalent. The following, therefore, are referred to as fashion:

Signs of Bliss in Textures and Textiles

Dagmar Venohr

Source: Fashion in Fiction. Text and Clothing in Literature, Film, and Television, 2009, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

The Upward Training of the Body from the Age of Chivalry to Courtly Civility

Georges Vigarello

Source: Classic and Modern Writings on Fashion, 2nd Edition, 2009, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

From the Middle Ages on, every failure of physical uprightness has been attributed to two main categories: the stigma of deformity, sanctioned by the attention given to strength and aesthetic qualities, and the lack of the proper deportment prescribed mainly by socialized ethics. In both cases, however, medieval comments were unpolished and hasty, even weak compared with those which would be made in the sixteenth century. The strongest and most valiant knight was lost if disabled – “he falls to t

Space Age Fashion

Suzanne Baldaia

Source: Twentieth-Century American Fashion, 2008, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

Editors’ Introduction: During the 1960s, America exploded with political and social protest. The civil rights movement, dissent over the American involvement in Vietnam, and women’s rights were just some of the factors that resulted in the wholesale rejection of the status quo. The old rules fell by the wayside for clothing too. Designers began creating pants suits for women to wear for formal occasions. Men broke out of their gray flannel suits and became peacocks. British rock groups, inspired

Introduction

Patrizia Calefato

English translation by Lisa Adams

Source: The Clothed Body, 2004, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

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