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Clements Ribeiro

Amber Jane Butchart

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Designer Biography

Vivienne Westwood, “On Liberty,” Fall/Winter 1994

Lydia Edwards

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Article

“My job, more than anything, is to idealize women,” Vivienne Westwood has said of her work, including the fall/winter collection “On Liberty,” which premiered in Paris in 1994. Her appropriation of historic styles is well known, but in this collection a reinvention of the bustle, the nineteenth-century skirt support that accented a woman’s behind and allowed for elaborate skirt drapery, is more fluid than similar iterations have been. Westwood’s stark wire cage from 1990, for instance, was not so

Marilyn Monroe

Joanne B. Eicher

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Article

Marilyn Monroe, born Norma Jeane Mortenson, sometimes using Baker (1 June 1926–5 August 1962), began her career as a model. Signing a film contract in 1946, she played minor roles, receiving attention for her beauty, curvaceous body, and mode of dressing. With prominence, she became a sex symbol. She adeptly helped create her visual persona by learning makeup and strategic wardrobe techniques. She relied on costumers like William Travilla to help construct her image in films like Gentlemen Prefer

Alexandre Herchcovitch

Elizabeth Kutesko

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Designer Biography

Modeling History: How Models Have Changed Between the 1970s and 2000

Julia Rea

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Article

The role and significance of the fashion model has been subject to a series of profound changes since the professionalization of the occupation in the late nineteenth century. These variations have been catalyzed by a wide range of social, cultural, and creative influences, from shifting trends in photography and fashion and changing ideals of beauty and femininity to the advent of technology, the Internet, and social media. When Vogue launched in the United States in 1892, the magazine’s fashion

Ali MacGraw

Anne Reimers

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Article

American actress Ali MacGraw’s outfits and styling in the classic weepie Love Story (1970) were defining for a generation. Her look came to represent the aspirational wardrobe and beauty ideal of the upper middle-class, Ivy League university “preppy,” regularly referenced by American fashion brands. MacGraw’s offscreen style, more bohemian and artistic with floaty dresses and scarves, was equally influential. The designer she is most closely associated with, however, is Halston, and his brand of

Introduction, Rationale, Context

Pamela Church Gibson

Source: Fashion and Celebrity Culture 2012

Book chapter

Fashion is the medicament that will console for the phenomenon of forgetting on a collective scale.

The Healthy Body and the Politics of Fitness

Geraldine Howell

Source: Wartime Fashion. From Haute Couture to Homemade, 1939–1945 2012

Book chapter

North American Influences on West European Dress

Rebecca Arnold

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

North America’s effect on West European fashion is often viewed only in relation to Hollywood and celebrity. However, its influence has been far more diverse, from technological inventions to leisure wear and the professionalization of the industry.

Body Modification and Body Art

Lisa Aronson

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Africa 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The U.S. anthropologist Enid Schildkrout characterizes the body as a “site where culture is inscribed (and) a place where the individual is defined and inserted into the cultural landscape.” Cultures throughout the African continent use the transformed body as means for expressing identities, norms, values, and aesthetic principles through a wide range of body art media, including everything from scarification, tattooing, painting, and oiling the skin to styling the hair and reshaping designated

Caribbean Islanders

José F. Blanco

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Caribbean immigrants have contributed greatly to the multicultural and multilingual diversity of the United States and Canada for a number of years. Often grouped either with other Hispanics or with African Americans, Caribbean people are actually part of a complex mosaic of cultures, languages, and dress practices. The Caribbean, named after its main pre-Columbian inhabitants, the Carib, has been shaped by the encounter of several cultures, including native groups such as the Puerto Rican Taínos

Body and Beauty

Patrizia Calefato

Translated by Sveva Scaramuzzi

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The concept of human “race” was extended for the first time from its meaning of “lineage” or “descent” by Georges Cuvier (1769–1823) who gave it a classificatory, hierarchical meaning. During the nineteenth century, this conception led to racial biology and eugenics. Notwithstanding the researchers’ intentions, the idea of “race” constituted the basis for nineteenth- and twentieth-century racist ideologies. The idea of feminine beauty also evolved in relation to the genesis of racism. Fashion bec

Afro Hairstyle

Maxine Leeds Craig

Source: The Berg Companion to Fashion 2010

Encyclopedia entry

In the 1950s black women were expected to straighten their hair. An unstraightened black female hairstyle constituted a radical rejection of black community norms. Black women straightened their hair by coating it with protective pomade and combing it with a heated metal comb. This technique transformed the tight curls of African American hair into completely straight hair with a pomaded sheen. Straightened hair remained straight until it had contact with water. Black women made every effort to l

Cosmetics and Beauty Culture in Australia

Jennifer Craik

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Cosmetics and beauty culture are forms of body modification that have a place in the language of all cultures of fashion and dress. Australia has both indigenous and European traditions of body modification and aesthetics. In precontact times indigenous traditions were centrally connected with ritualistic practices, but they were also about making the body attractive. After European settlement colonists largely followed the cosmetic practices and beauty cultures of Europe and America. Among Europ

Body and Dress

Angela Durante and Jenny Ellison

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada 2010

Encyclopedia entry

All human cultures engage in some form of dress and adornment. Although our bodies and the items we put on them might appear to be separate, they in fact have a great deal in common and are considerably intertwined. A dressed body represents a complex set of negotiations between an individual, the fashion system, and the social context in which they exist. Codes of dress set parameters but do not entirely determine how individuals dress. The body and dress are mutually constitutive—dress adds soc

Body Concepts in Korea and North Asia

Jaehee Jung

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Although concepts of Korean female beauty have changed during the five-thousand-year history of the peninsula, these ideals have always been deeply embedded in the daily lives of women. Historically, they have been largely shaped by two influences from China: notions of famed female beauties and Confucian modesty. The theme of beautiful women formed an important genre of poetry and literature, as well as painting, in China and in the East Asian cultures influenced by it. These images, while often

Beauty, Nature, and Equality

Ingun Grimstad Klepp

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

In the Greek mythical universe, beauty was a gift from the gods, associated with order and cosmos. This mentality was later discredited in Western culture, as physical beauty became considered superficial or even sinful. The situation today is paradoxical: in the world of fairytales, literature, and magazines, beauty is worshipped, yet there is no theoretical reflection around this. One of the main ideals of democracy is the individual’s opportunity to achieve status through actions; hence, empha

Body and Beauty

Babatunde Lawal

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Africa 2010

Encyclopedia entry

As many scholars have pointed out, the body is much more than flesh, bones, and blood. Apart from defining an individual, it is socially constructed in different ways by different cultures, relating an individual to his or her habitus. As anthropologist Jean Comaroff has put it: The relationship between the human body and the social collectivity is a critical dimension of consciousness in all societies. Indeed, it is a truism that the body is the tangible form of selfhood in individual and collec

Niger

Kristyne Loughran

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Africa 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Niger is a vast landlocked West African country named after the river Niger. Ninety-five percent of the population in Niger is Islamic, and the remainder are Christians and animists. Clothing styles worn by men and women in the Republic of Niger are well suited to the country’s geography and climate, and to its religious beliefs. Young Nigerien boys wear shorts and shirts and start wearing trousers when they reach adulthood. Men from all groups dress in long trousers with a large matching shirt,

Cosmetics and Skin Care

Brian Moeran and Lise Skov

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Within the area of dress, defined as body supplements and body modification according to Joanne Eicher’s terminology, cosmetics and skin care are a subgroup of nonpermanent body modifications. Admittedly, the issue of permanence is relative; antiwrinkle cream, for example, is intended to have an enduring effect. Also, in some cases, permanent and nonpermanent treatments are interchangeable; skin bleaching or tattoos can replace makeup, and hair removal can be temporary or permanent.

Mauritania and Western Sahara

Hudita Nura Mustafa

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Africa 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Mauritania and Western Sahara/Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic occupy a large region in northwest Africa on the edge of the Sahara Desert, bordering the Atlantic Ocean and the Sahel. For centuries, trade, migration, slavery, and intermarriage have created economic and cultural exchange across this desert region, bridging Arab and black Africa and their traditions of dress. Across the Senegal River, the famed Senegalese city of St. Louis long served as a host for Mauritanian merchants and migrants

Dress in the Marshall Islands

Nancy J. Pollock

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The people of the two chains of atolls that make up the Marshall Islands have adopted styles of dress and adornment over the years to fit their cultural and social parameters. This attire reflects their aesthetics, modified by many outside influences from the times of early voyagers to the present. Dress materials and other items of embellishment were originally made from the islands’ resources, such as processed leaves and dyes, while latterly cotton materials have been used, along with local ma

Cosmetics: Makeup in North America

Shari Sims

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada 2010

Encyclopedia entry

While ancient Egyptian women may have lavished on the eyeliner and African and South American tribes had rich histories of painting their faces for ceremonial occasions, makeup did not really become fully acceptable in North America until the beginning of the twentieth century. Using patent creams and lotions for perfecting one’s complexion was one thing, but “painting” one’s face was frowned on in polite society. Yet in true American expansionism, within a small space of years, a multitude of th

The Beauty Blogosphere

Shari Sims

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Global Perspectives 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Women have sought advice—from each other, from experts, from style setters, from servants to the stars—for as long as they have decorated their appearance using cosmetics. Non-Western women passed down traditions from one generation to another; in the twenty-first century, social media have literally upended traditions while helping to create new ones. There are hundreds of beauty blogs (some estimate at least four hundred) in addition to the active Web sites of women’s magazines and cosmetics co

Russia: Ethnic Dress

Pamela Smith

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The Russian Federation is by far the largest country in the world, stretching from the Baltic Sea in the west to the Pacific Ocean in the east, from the Arctic Ocean in the north to the Caucasus Mountains and the Caspian Sea in the south. The majority of its ethnic Russian population lives in the part generally known as European Russia (bounded to the east by the Ural Mountains)—still a vast area that comprises 40 percent of the continent of Europe. Within its territory are many different climate

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