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Mulberry

Amber Jane Butchart

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Designer Biography

Book chapter

It is widely acknowledged that fashion is modern. If one adopts David Frisby’s definition of modernité as ‘the more general experience of the aestheticization of everyday life, as exemplified in the transitory qualities of an urban culture shaped by the imperatives of fashion, consumerism, and constant innovation,’ fashion is proto-typically modern. (Stewart 2008: xii)

Iraqi Dress

Ulrike Al-Khamis and Saad Lafta Hami

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Iraq is one of the largest countries in southwestern Asia. It is bordered by Iran to the east, Turkey to the north, Syria and Jordan to the west, and Saudi Arabia and Kuwait to the south. Iraq’s capital is Baghdad. Geographically, the country combines three distinct regions: fertile mountain regions in the north, the rich alluvial valleys of the Euphrates and Tigris Rivers, and expansive, arid desert plains in the west. Both the terrain and the bordering countries have had an influence on dress.

Serbia: Ethnic Dress

Jasna Bjeladinović

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

In its rich creative textiles, its role in everyday life and in providing ethnic identity, as well as its visual and aesthetic values, ethnic dress is one of the most valuable and beautiful creations of the cultural heritage of the Serbs. Serb ethnic dress is known mostly due to preserved collections of clothing sets from the nineteenth century and the first decades of the twentieth century and is characterized by a great variety of forms, trimmings, ornaments, and colors. Its splendor is obvious

Ideology and Ethnic Dress in Croatia

Aida Brenko

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Ethnic dress has been used for ideological and political purposes in Croatia from the mid-nineteenth century up through the early twenty-first century. In the course of history, individual communities have adopted clothes and clothing styles to differentiate themselves from others. Thanks to its distinctive features, dress has acted as an obvious symbol of identity. Only with the appearance of fashion and the acceptance of global fashion tendencies by elite groups from the mid-sixteenth century o

Poland: Ethnic Dress

Anita Broda

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

It is generally considered that peasants’ dress became distinct from that of other classes beginning in the fifteenth century. Dress quickly became a symbol of group values. A phenomenon typical in Polish folk culture was the borrowing of elements from higher classes, seen in folk dress with rich baroque detail. The peak development of folk dress in many parts of Poland occurred in the second half of the nineteenth century and was connected with peasants being granted the freehold of land; festiv

Sweden

Ulla Brück

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Historically there are several indications of an urge to follow fashion in Sweden, although changes were slow. During the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries medieval and Renaissance traits still dominated. In the eighteenth century, two-piece dresses for women and breeches and jackets for men became more common. Sweden has numerous varieties of provincial folk dress. Some consider these to be historic items, with strong local identification, while others see them as inventions of nineteenth-cent

Ireland

Síle de Cléir

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The situation regarding the various types of dress in Ireland in the period between the beginning of the nineteenth and the end of the twentieth centuries is a complex one. It is useful, perhaps, in this context to see dress in Ireland at this time as a continuum: folk dress at one end, characterized by locally produced fabrics and traditional aesthetics and deeply embedded in a local social and cultural context; and fashionable dress at the other, with a wider choice of materials and styles conn

Rural Dress in Australia

Jennifer Craik

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

A distinctive Australian sense of dress for Europeans is often considered to be bush wear, that is, clothes that have become synonymous with rural life and the outback. The typical elements of this rural dress include moleskin trousers, elastic-sided boots, cotton or wool shirt, bush jacket (in denim, wool, or leather) or waterproof oilskin coat, and a wide-brimmed felt hat. These garments are typically worn by men, so particular traits of masculinity are woven into the image of Australian bush w

Settler Dress in Australia

Damayanthie Eluwawalage

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Clothing was a problematic aspect of the social and cultural life of colonial Australia from the time of first settlement in 1788. Apart from military officers and civil officials, much everyday clothing was working-class wear. Yet fashionable dress was soon to become a key aspect of cultural practice, emphasizing the social status and power of the elite and aspirational elite, as well as being a symbolic indicator of class. Status signals were important in this fledgling society made up of dispa

Hungary: Ethnic Dress

Ágnes Fülemile

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Throughout most of its history Hungary had a predominantly agrarian economy. The institutions of the feudal system had been only gradually eliminated during the nineteenth century. The dress of common people was strongly independent of general fashion influences. In Hungary there was a deep social gap between classes, and the dress of the agrarian population became modernized later than that of city dwellers. The most flourishing period of regional peasant dress was the nineteenth and early twent

Overview: Hong Kong

Valery M. Garrett

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Until the late twentieth century the British colony of Hong Kong remained detached from events in China, especially in the rural New Territories. Farmers, wearing traditional dress, grew rice and vegetables, while fishermen sold their catch in local ports. Working people wore hard-wearing, dark clothing suitable to their tough lives. Most wore practical jackets with loose trousers, hemp being a popular fabric. Symbolism is important in Chinese folklore, and children’s clothing was embroidered wit

Germany

Irene Guenther

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

German dress in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries was closely linked to French–German relations. Critics disapproved of affluent German women’s fondness for French styles. During the Napoleonic wars, German rural folk dress often featured prominently at national festivals, manifesting patriotism. Ironically, it was with the French occupation during this time that German fragmentation consolidated, bringing a sense of “Germanness.” Industrialization occurred rapidly in the German states. Afte

Hakka

Elizabeth Lominska Johnson

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The Hakka people, who are estimated to number 75,000,000 worldwide, are considered to be ethnically Chinese, not an ethnic minority group within China. They read and write standard Chinese, and their language is one of the approximately seven major Chinese language groups. They are distinguished from the others by their language and by an understanding of a shared history of migration from northern China to various scattered areas of southeastern and south central China as well as Taiwan. To the

Historical Evidence: Japan

Alan Kennedy

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

In no other civilization has historical dress been so carefully preserved and documented as in Japan. This unique approach stems from its ancient tradition of above-ground storage. The earliest, most important costumes surviving above ground in Japan comprise nine patchwork Buddhist robes, preserved in a temple complex founded in the eighth century c.e. Even foreign non-Buddhist robes can be found in Japanese Buddhist temples. Various sixteenth-century dragon robes, gifted from the Chinese court,

Class, Work, and Dress

Alexandra Kim

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

During the nineteenth century, clothing in West Europe was inextricably linked to a person’s class and occupation. Dress was constantly used to determine a person’s social status. Although there were obvious variations in occupational dress across the Continent, a worker’s clothing—whether in the countryside or the city—would have clearly indicated his or her place in the social hierarchy. Changing work patterns, a growing informality, and the fragmentation of the class structure in the twentieth

Pedi, Ndebele, and Ntwane Dress and Beadwork

Sandra Klopper

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Africa 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The Pedi, Ndebele, and Ntwane communities developed close links during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries in what is now South Africa’s Mpumalanga province. Some of their beadwork and rituals are almost identical. Today there are two Ndebele groups, the Manala and Ndzundza. Influenced by missionaries, the former gradually lost touch with traditional dress, while the Ndzundza, forcibly indentured to white farmers in the 1880s, strove for cultural cohesion, developing beadwork associated with i

Migrant Workers, Production, and Fashion

Sandra Klopper and >Fiona Rankin-Smith

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Africa 2010

Encyclopedia entry

South Africa’s migrant labor system first began in the 1850s when African men from rural communities flocked to the newly discovered diamond and gold fields on the Witwatersrand in search of work. Originally miners brought their own clothing to work in the mines, primarily shorts. Eventually the mining companies, to protect their human resources, decided it was in their best interest to provide rubber boots, coveralls, and hard hats to protect miners working in a very dangerous occupation. By the

Finland

Bo Lönnqvist

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Early nineteenth-century Finnish fashion was influenced by Stockholm, capital of Finland and Sweden since the thirteenth century. In the 1790s the Finnish upper classes wore styles influenced by rococo and neoclassicism, known as Gustavian after Gustavus III of Sweden. After the war of 1808–1809 Finland was separated from Sweden and annexed to the Russian Empire as a grand duchy until Finnish independence in 1917. A new bourgeois class developed. Male dress lost its extravagance, symbolizing bure

Denmark

Marie Riegels Melchior

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

In terms of dress and fashion, Denmark is an example of a peripheral West European country within the international fashion system. Since the Middle Ages, new fashions have found their way to Denmark through the internationally oriented royal family, the purchases of well-traveled citizens, various international and national fashion reports, and international purchases by local retailers. With varying speed, new cuts, colors, and styles have impressed themselves upon both the everyday and festive

Montenegro

Zorica Mrvaljevic

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The establishment of the Slavic state known as Doclea (later Zeta) led to the development of an original cultural heritage within the area of present-day Montenegro. The cultural self-awareness became so strong that for the centuries that followed, it enabled effective resistance to the Ottoman Empire, which strove to conquer and assimilate the territory. Immediately before the Ottomans prevailed in the late fifteenth century, the territory was ruled by the Crnojevic dynasty, recognized and suppo

Switzerland

Sigrid Pallmert

Translated by Kirsten Warner

Philipp Thüring

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

As a multicultural country, dress in Switzerland has been characterized by a cosmopolitan outlook and adoption of international influences. Bourgeois styles have been dominant, but at various times communities of radical thinkers and avant-garde artists have made their mark on Swiss dress styles. For the rural population, regional and ethnic dress has been very important, to the extent that Swiss folklore has had a considerable influence on the perception of Switzerland. This is true even in the

Latvia: Ancient and Ethnic Dress

Ieva Pigozne-Brinkmane

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Between the seventh and thirteenth centuries, the territory known in the early twenty-first century as Latvia was inhabited by its indigenous people, the Baltic and Finno-Ugric tribes. Evidence of dress can be found from archaeological excavations. Men and women wore clothing made at home from locally grown flax and fleece; accessories were made from leather and furs of domestic and wild animals. The primary garment was a long-sleeved collarless linen tunic, long for women, shorter for men. Men w

Angola

Manuel Jordán Pérez

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Africa 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Angola is situated on the Atlantic Ocean and is bordered by the Democratic Republic of Congo, Zambia, and Namibia. Most of the original Khosian speakers were displaced by migrations of Bantu in ancient times. Some Khosians remain in Southern Angola, living as hunter-gatherers or working for Bantu pastoralists. Their dress draws on available resources such as ostrich eggshell beads and goatskins, with varied styles reflecting the wearers’ affiliations. A former Portuguese colony, Angola has suffer

Norway

Tone Rasch

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Is it possible to understand the way people dress by looking at their history and natural environment? A survey of Norwegians’ habits and attitudes related to clothing suggests that the answer is yes. The country is located on the periphery of the European continent. There are few inhabitants, and the combination of a long coastline and numerous mountain ranges has led to scattered settlements and great distances between them. Politically, Norway became independent in 1905 after being a part of t

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