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Moko Māori: Skin Modification

Ngahuia Te Awekotuku, Linda Waimarie Nikora and Mohi Robert Rua

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The Māori people settled Aotearoa (New Zealand) from the islands of the eastern Pacific, coming in successive waves over many centuries. They brought with them the languages, music, belief systems, and technologies of their cultures of origin. They also brought the practice of permanent skin modification. Tattoo chisels similar to those used in western Polynesia have been found in some of the earliest excavations. With the new environment came new resources: massive hardwood forests, nephrite and

Festivals Pacific-Style

Susan Cochrane

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Global Perspectives 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Examples of ceremonial dress can be found around the world. In the Pacific, festivals as ceremonies celebrate Pacific life and occur in local, regional, national, and international contexts. At the community level, every school has its culture day, every church its fete, and every family and clan celebrates events in the life cycle. On the regional level, provincial governments organize festivals or “shows” to bring the communities under their jurisdiction together to celebrate unity and diversit

The Māori Pari (Bodice)

Jo Diamond

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The pari is a Māori bodice of the rāranga type, worn with a piupiu (a type of fibrous skirt) and Māori jewelry by women in cultural performances including competitions, concerts, and festivals. Rāranga is a generic naming for plaited (as opposed to loom) handweaving practices undertaken mostly, though not exclusively, by Māori women. Māori performances usually occur in order to promote traditional practices, but for some they include a more material reward or prize money or are part of fund-raisi

Liturgical Robes in New Zealand

Sandra Heffernan

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Liturgical dress worn by members of the Roman Catholic Church played an important part in daily life and religious observances, and rituals from birth to death, in colonial New Zealand. In 1838 Marist Catholic missionaries landed in the north of New Zealand, where most of the twelve Catholic mission stations were established. At this time seventy thousand Māoris were dispersed throughout the country, and there was a small European settlement of approximately twenty thousand, mostly in the ports a

Introduction to the Dress of the Pacific Islands

Adrienne L. Kaeppler

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The Pacific Ocean covers one-third of the earth’s surface and is inhabited by hundreds of cultural groups. Some twenty-five thousand islands, ranging from tiny specks of coral to the large island of New Guinea, are occupied by physically diverse peoples, many of whom have mixed and intermixed. Environments range from snowy mountains to raging volcanoes, from steaming rain forests to parched deserts, from coral atolls to volcanic outcrops. These Pacific Islands are usually divided into three histo

Black and New Zealand Dress

Bronwyn Labrum

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The color black features in New Zealand dress in distinctive ways that are the product of the nation’s particular history and culture. It is frequently evoked as New Zealand’s national color, primarily because of its lengthy association with the game of rugby union and the uniform of other key sporting codes. More recently, the supposed affinity between this hue and the work of leading fashion designers has cemented the association. The color black has connections across other groups within New Z

A Māori Fashion Designer

Bronwyn Labrum

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

In the twenty-first century Māori fashion labels such as Kia Kaha have taken Māori fashion onto the streets and catwalks of New Zealand and around the world. But one of the pioneers of Māori fashion blazed a pathway decades before, not on the catwalk, but in the halls of Parliament. Followers of indigenous fashion owe a huge debt to Whetu Tirikātene-Sullivan, who supported the development of modern Māori fashion through the patronage of artists and designers, and who was its best advertisement.

Geographical and Geopolitical Introduction

Margaret Maynard

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The Pacific region covers a vast geographic area. From the continent of Australia it reaches its southernmost point at Antarctica, while to the north it extends to the shores of Asia, and to the west, the Americas. It includes all the island groups of Micronesia, Polynesia, and Melanesia. The first inhabitants arrived between forty thousand and sixty thousand years ago and populated Australia and New Guinea with successive waves of Austronesians, settling island after island. The Māori were among

Economies and Cultures of Dress

Margaret Maynard

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The economic and cultural history of dress in Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific is extraordinarily complex and varied. The region spans highly industrialized nations, communities based on subsistence living, and intermediary economies. Shifts in cultural attitudes toward dress and the body and alteration to economies over time have been accentuated by trade with Europe, the United States, and Asia. Clothing demarcating gender and age differences must be acknowledged, as well as cross-cultur

Pacific Street Styles in Auckland

Giles Peterson and Billie Lythberg

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

A moko with a kilt…a “Kalo and Fried Corned-Beef” (KFC) T-shirt…tapa-printed hoodies worn with lavalavas … a tupenu with clogs … the hint of a pe’a above jeans … urban Pacific street style brings a distinctly Aotearoa (New Zealand)–Pacific flavor to international trends and labels, fusing together elements of the local and the global, the high-tech and the handcrafted, Pacific motifs and multinational branding, haute couture and factory standard issue. Particularly associated with Auckland, known

Photographic Representations of Pacific Peoples

Max Quanchi

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The first camera arrived in the Pacific shortly after it was invented in France in 1839, and photographs of Pacific Islanders were taken during several European voyages in the 1840s. Most of these photographs have not survived. Permanent European traders, settlers, and regular visitors increased after the founding of Botany Bay (Sydney) in 1788 and the growth of port towns at Honolulu, Papeete, Levuka, and Apia; and an accessible collection of photographs, many recording the dress and accoutremen

Māori and European Dress: Cultural Exchanges in New Zealand

Jennifer Quérée

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

From the late eighteenth century Māori have used dress as one of the means of negotiating and accommodating European culture, especially during the great influx of settlers in the mid- to late nineteenth century. Initially, Māori selectively combined European garments and accessories with their own dress, both as fashionable novelties and as a means of enhancing or gaining social standing. Over a much longer period of time Māori were required to wear European dress by Christian missionaries and e

Niue: Dress, Hats, and Woven Accessories

Hilke Thode-Arora

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The small Polynesian island of Niue is one of the highest coral islands in the world. Only its plateau, rising with steep cliffs above a jagged coastline, can be inhabited. Throughout Niue’s history droughts and famines have been experienced with regularity. There are no rivers on the island, and, although soil is fertile, vast stretches of land have been exhausted by shifting cultivation and ill-advised agricultural programs of the past. The soil is easily blown off by frequent and often devasta

Pacific Sisters: Urban Pacific Art, Fashion, and Performance

Feeonaa Wall

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Under the banner “Pacific Sisters,” a group of fashion designers, artists, performers, and musicians based in Aotearoa (New Zealand) began working together in the early 1990s. Of predominantly mixed Polynesian (a subgroup of Pacific peoples, including Māori, the first nation peoples of Aotearoa) and European heritage, their work has responded to the unique multicultural urban environment of Tamaki Makaurau (Auckland), home to the world’s largest urban population of Pacific peoples. The group’s dr

Introduction to Māori Dress

Patricia Te Arapo Wallace

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

When early Eastern Polynesian navigators explored Te Moana-Nui ā-Kiwa (“The Great Sea of Kiwa,” or the Pacific Ocean), they discovered the world’s largest oceanic archipelago, Aotearoa—New Zealand. The temperate climate of this geographically isolated land had produced a restricted range of flora and fauna. Away from their tropical homelands, the voyaging ancestors of the Māori people discovered that survival in the colder climate required significantly warmer clothing. They experimented with new

Nga Aho Tipuna (Ancestral Threads): Maori Cloaks from New Zealand

Amiria Henare

Source: Clothing as Material Culture 2005

Book chapter

According to Maori anthropologist Te Rangihiroa (Peter Buck), the production of textiles through whatu or finger weaving developed from basketry techniques brought to New Zealand from Eastern Polynesia by the ancestors of Maori people, whose arrival is generally placed between the tenth and thirteenth centuries AD (1926: xviii). Although it is called ‘weaving’, the technique actually involves a kind of twining (Fig. 7.2), in which single or double pairs of wefts are wrapped around each warp threa

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