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Multiple Meanings of the ‘Hijab’ in Contemporary France

Malcolm D. Brown

Source: Dressed to Impress. Looking the Part 2011

Book chapter

The affaire du foulard first came to prominence in the autumn of 1989, shortly after France had celebrated the bicentenary of the Revolution, when three Muslim schoolgirls in the town of Creil, not far from Paris, were expelled for wearing the hijab, and refusing to remove it. In so doing, they were judged to have infringed secular Republican principles, or, more accurately, the principle of laïcité, which had been developed from the ideas of the Revolution, and was held to be an important guaran

Overview of Mongolia

Monisha Ahmed

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Walking down the main street in Ulan Bator, Mongolia’s capital, past gray, crumbling Soviet-era buildings, a woman wearing a blue silk del, or robe, contrasts with the robust man by her side in a sober, gray Western-style suit. Walking alongside them are women in skinny jeans, fitted T-shirts, and stiletto heels. But far from the city, a nomad wears his sheepskin robe, sitting astride his horse. Mongolia has many faces. Probably the most celebrated of these is Chinggis Khaan, better known by his

Hawaiian Dress Prior to 1898

Linda Boynton Arthur

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Hawai’i is an archipelago in the Pacific Ocean, a chain referred to simply as Hawai’i or the Hawaiian Islands. The six major islands are Oahu, Kauai, Maui, Molokai, Lanai, and the Big Island, that is, Hawai’i. The latter name is rarely used, in order to reduce confusion, since Hawai’i (the archipelago) became an American state in 1959. Until the late eighteenth century the peoples who inhabited these islands shared a common culture, although they were somewhat divided politically in that each had

Malawi

Barbara W. Blackmun

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Africa 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Landlocked Malawi is situated in southeast Africa. It has a large lake, a varied topography and climate, and a diverse population. Dress traditions reflect the country’s checkered history, involving foreign influence through migration, trade, and invasion. Nguni warriors from Natal conquered lakeside farming communities in the 1850s, and Arab and Yao slave traders later devastated the land, which became a British protectorate in 1890. Previously, the Maravi and Yao peoples were renowned ironworke

Caribbean Islanders

José F. Blanco

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Caribbean immigrants have contributed greatly to the multicultural and multilingual diversity of the United States and Canada for a number of years. Often grouped either with other Hispanics or with African Americans, Caribbean people are actually part of a complex mosaic of cultures, languages, and dress practices. The Caribbean, named after its main pre-Columbian inhabitants, the Carib, has been shaped by the encounter of several cultures, including native groups such as the Puerto Rican Taínos

Miao/Hmong in the United States

Mary Alice Chaney

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. South Asia and Southeast Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The Hmong came to the United States as refugees from Southeast Asia. They trace their ancestry to China where they are called Miao. The U.S. Hmong population is concentrated in California, Minnesota, and Wisconsin. They are known for and recognized by the colorful and elaborately decorated clothing ensembles that they wear to celebrate their New Year. There are three Hmong subgroups, which derive their names from the colors and patterns used in their special-occasion dress: White, Green/Blue, and

Asian American

Usha Chowdhary

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada 2010

Encyclopedia entry

In 2004, Asian Americans represented 33 percent of the total immigrants in the United States and 50 percent in Canada. Even though previous studies show that immigrants acculturate over time and are assimilated to the new cultural values, their ethnic identity continues to be important for selected parts of their everyday life. Ethnic identity allows association between and among people based on their shared worldviews, social practices, and commonality of past experiences and helps with giving a

Norwegian Folk Dress in the United States

Carol Colburn

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Emigration from Norway to the United States lasted for approximately one hundred years, from 1825 to 1925. Norway’s terrain provided only three percent arable land; for Norwegian immigrants, the fertile plains in America’s Midwest were an attractive destination. Few packed distinctively Norwegian clothing, knowing that following local styles would indicate their intention to blend in. However, Norwegian dress echoed among the Norwegian American population through continued contact between Norway

Rural Dress in Australia

Jennifer Craik

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

A distinctive Australian sense of dress for Europeans is often considered to be bush wear, that is, clothes that have become synonymous with rural life and the outback. The typical elements of this rural dress include moleskin trousers, elastic-sided boots, cotton or wool shirt, bush jacket (in denim, wool, or leather) or waterproof oilskin coat, and a wide-brimmed felt hat. These garments are typically worn by men, so particular traits of masculinity are woven into the image of Australian bush w

National Minorities in Xinjiang Province

Rahile Dawut

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region is located in northwest China, a vast area bordered by Mongolia, Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan, and Pakistan. Besides the Han Chinese, there are more than ten other ethnic groups, following several different religious traditions, in Xinjiang. Among them are Uighurs, Kazakhs, Kyrgyz, Uzbeks, Tartars, Tajiks, and Hui, all of whom follow various Islamic traditions. The historical Silk Road, which ran through present-day Xinjiang, linked the Far East, Central Asia, western

London as a Fashion City

Edwina Ehrman

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

London is part of a global fashion system, known in international circles for its fashion heritage and diversity, its hybrid sense of style, its vibrant consumer culture, and the creativity of its fashion graduates. It is equated with originality and experimentation and with styles that draw on a wide vocabulary of cultural references. The media tend to the innovative and radical, and the exposure given to designers who embody these qualities weights perceptions of London. The city plays a key ro

Settler Dress in Australia

Damayanthie Eluwawalage

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Clothing was a problematic aspect of the social and cultural life of colonial Australia from the time of first settlement in 1788. Apart from military officers and civil officials, much everyday clothing was working-class wear. Yet fashionable dress was soon to become a key aspect of cultural practice, emphasizing the social status and power of the elite and aspirational elite, as well as being a symbolic indicator of class. Status signals were important in this fledgling society made up of dispa

Jews in the Melbourne Garment Trade

Anna Epstein

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

For a large part of the twentieth century the garment trade was an important industry in the southern Australian state of Victoria. Since clothing was a big part of the country’s manufacturing, the Jews of the garment trade made a large contribution to Australia’s economy. This multifaceted industry had its own economic and social history, gorgeous products, and camaraderie and color at its heart, Flinders Lane. It gave rise to the individualism, flair, entrepreneurial spirit, and sheer fun that

Middle Eastern

Mary H. Farahnakian

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The dress and fashion of Middle Eastern immigrants emphasize copying, retooling, and reinterpreting traditions and developing new identities in the United States and Canada. These changes are generally influenced by their immigration background, dress design, and values of traditional and nontraditional immigrants. They also include religious values and customs as well as types, significance, and appropriateness of dress fit and design.

American Immigrants of West European Origin

Judy Zaccagnini Flynn

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The dress of North American immigrants from Western Europe is a reflection of the evolution of their sociocultural experience as they went from their homelands to the New World. Immigration has existed from the early times of settlement in North America to the present. Western Europe (defined in 1890 as Italy, Spain, France, Great Britain, Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Germany, Netherlands, Austria-Hungry, Switzerland, France, and Luxembourg) provided the largest number of immigrants to the United Sta

Icelandic Knitted Apparel

Jennifer Graham

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Liturgical Robes in New Zealand

Sandra Heffernan

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Liturgical dress worn by members of the Roman Catholic Church played an important part in daily life and religious observances, and rituals from birth to death, in colonial New Zealand. In 1838 Marist Catholic missionaries landed in the north of New Zealand, where most of the twelve Catholic mission stations were established. At this time seventy thousand Māoris were dispersed throughout the country, and there was a small European settlement of approximately twenty thousand, mostly in the ports a

The Influences of Ottoman Culture

June Hill

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

From its initial base east of the Bosphorus in the early 1300s, Ottoman rule gradually extended across East Europe, replacing the Byzantine Empire as the region’s major power. In 1676, the Ottoman Empire stretched from Crete and Anatolia to Dalmatia, Poland, and the Ukraine. It was to be 250 years before the empire reverted to its founding state, culminating in the establishment of the Republic of Turkey in 1923. At the height of its empire, Ottoman products such as embroidery were fashionable in

Colonial Influence on Dress in the Indian Subcontinent

Donald Clay Johnson

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. South Asia and Southeast Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Queen Elizabeth I issued a royal charter to the Company of Merchants of London Trading into the East Indies (commonly known as the East India Company) on the last day of 1600. Thus began the official interactions between England and India, which two centuries later resulted in British political domination of the Indian Subcontinent. What the British wore in India overwhelmingly reflected London fashion rather than incorporating approaches to clothing that had evolved over millennia in India. This

Jewish Dress in Central and Southwest Asia and the Diaspora

Esther Juhasz

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Jewish dress has been shaped by the Jewish code of law, halacha, and various types of contacts with other religions and cultures. The halacha deals in detail with the desired conduct of a Jew in everyday life, including explicit rulings and recommended attitudes on dress. No specific dress was ever mandated by Jewish law, and as a result no universal Jewish dress evolved. Some common principles are recognizable in a variety of styles of Jewish dress. In some places Jews played an active role in t

Palestinian Women’s Dress

Widad Kawar and Sibba Einarsdóttir

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Palestine had a wide variety of traditional dress styles. Not only did every area have a different style, but often every village had its own distinctive dress, and sometimes the various large families living in one village would have a range of different styles. Occasionally, there were differences within the same family as women from different villages entered the family as wives and each brought her own embroidery traditions and clothing styles with her. All of this variety makes defining Pale

Jordanian Women’s Dress

Widad Kawar and Sibba Einarsdóttir

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Jordan, officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, lies in the southern part of the Syrian Desert on the Gulf of Aqaba. It shares borders with Syria, Iraq, Israel, the West Bank, and Saudi Arabia. Much of the country is desert; however, in the northwest, there is a fertile agricultural region. Jordan has a long history that can be traced back to the Sumerian period in the second millennium b.c.e. and earlier. During its long and rich history, Jordan has been part of the Babylonian, Persian, Egyp

Migrant Workers, Production, and Fashion

Sandra Klopper and >Fiona Rankin-Smith

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Africa 2010

Encyclopedia entry

South Africa’s migrant labor system first began in the 1850s when African men from rural communities flocked to the newly discovered diamond and gold fields on the Witwatersrand in search of work. Originally miners brought their own clothing to work in the mines, primarily shorts. Eventually the mining companies, to protect their human resources, decided it was in their best interest to provide rubber boots, coveralls, and hard hats to protect miners working in a very dangerous occupation. By the

Acadians

Jenna Tedrick Kuttruff

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The Louisiana Acadians were originally French peasants who immigrated in the early 1600s to Acadie, the modern Canadian provinces of Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, bringing their simple dress and methods of production with them to the New World. In 1755, Acadie was surrendered by the French to the English, who subsequently expelled all Acadians who would not submit to the English Crown. Following the ensuing exodus, Acadian exiles sought to preserve their cultural identity by seeking out isolated

Textiles of Central Asia

Abby Lillethun

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Textiles play important roles expressing and sustaining ethnic identity in Central Asia, in part by signifying continuity of family and spiritual beliefs. In addition, textiles have been crucial in transcultural exchange processes as trade commodities in economic systems and as prestige symbols in sociopolitical contexts. Further, Central Asian textiles reflect historical influences of internal groups on each other, as well as influences resulting from contact brought by invasions and trading coh

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