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Secondhand Clothing

Karen Tranberg Hansen

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Global Perspectives 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Secondhand clothing constitutes a global market of commerce and consumption that has a long but changing history with complex links to garment production, tailoring, and couture. In Europe and North America, secondhand clothing was an important source of clothing well into the nineteenth century, until mass production and growing prosperity enabled more and more people to purchase brand-new rather than previously worn garments. During Europe’s imperial expansion, the trade in secondhand clothing

Cosmetics, Non-Western

Paula Heinonen

Source: The Berg Companion to Fashion 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Hispanic and Latino American

Josephine M. Moreno

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The heritage of Latinos living in the United States and Canada is a mixture of Spanish, Portuguese, European, Native, African, Asian, and other ancestry. Dress needs vary widely and are influenced in part by socioeconomic status, age, income, education, immigration status, faith, popular culture, and gender. Family values and faith play a significant role in Hispanic families and influence dress purchases, particularly for special occasion wear. Latinos also tend to be brand-conscious. Although a

The Southwest

Nancy J. Parezo

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The American Southwest and northwestern Mexico compose a culture area that is called the Greater Southwest, which since 1848 has been divided by two modern nation-states and influenced by each nation’s history, policy, and attire. As the arid homeland to a wealth of both well-known and little-known cultures, the Southwest has expressed a rich and varied history of attire, defined by both lifestyles and cultures. Based on a basic desert adaptation of prepared animal hide and woven fiber attire, wh

Latin American Fashion

Regina A. Root

Source: The Berg Companion to Fashion 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Zinacantán Indigenous Fashion

Yosi Anaya

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Latin America and the Caribbean 2005

Encyclopedia entry

The textiles of Chiapas, Mexico’s most southerly state, are prized as ranking among the finest products of Mexican weaving. Each locality has its particular style, the focus of this article being on the textiles of the Tzotzil community of Zinacantán in Chiapas. The textiles used by Chiapas peoples have also undergone intense development and are proudly worn in the villages and outside. This is particularly the case in Zinacantán. For centuries the Zinacantecs favored austere, apparently anonymou

Contemporary Veracruz Textiles

Yosi Anaya

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Latin America and the Caribbean 2005

Encyclopedia entry

In the panorama of indigenoustextiles of Veracruz, the Mexican state with the third largest native population, key items make up indigenous dress. The changing status of their survival, continuance, renovation, mutations, and incorporations is evident through varying factors, shifting tastes, and historical and contemporary social pressures. Indigenous dress, or arte popular (popular art/people’s art), is becoming less and less visible in its communities of origin, mostly falling into disuse desp

Film and Fashion

Alba F. Aragón

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Latin America and the Caribbean 2005

Encyclopedia entry

Attempting a full account of film and fashion in the two dozen nations of Latin America is a daunting task. The mere concept of regional and even national cinemas in Latin America is subject to debate, while the question of what Latin American fashion is has only begun to be addressed by scholars. The development of film in Latin America has been uneven and multifaceted. Often, films produced in Latin America have been purveyors of foreign fashion trends. Occasionally, they have sought to documen

Modern Maya Children’s Dress

Traci Ardren

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Latin America and the Caribbean 2005

Encyclopedia entry

In Maya culture children are considered a gift to be cherished. Many families are quite large, and older children grow up taking care of their siblings and learning household tasks at an early age. Girls as young as eight often weave using a backstrap loom, a loom used for indigenous manual weaving, or spin thread from wool and cotton. Boys begin to hunt small game and help in cornfields about the same age. Clothing is used to express ideas about village and ethnic identity, as well as the strict

Dress in Mexican Cinema

Isabel Arredondo

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Latin America and the Caribbean 2005

Encyclopedia entry

Despite Mexico’s ethnic and social diversity, Mexican films, especially those made during the classical period (1936–1957), propose a unified cultural identity around the notion of mestizo or mixed-race origin. Mestizo culture is the backbone of Fernando de Fuentes’s Vámonos con Pancho Villa (1935) and Allá en el rancho grande (1936), for instance, while in Emilio “El Indio” Fernández’s Flor Silvestre (1943) and María Candelaria (1943), indigenous dress is stripped of its cultural specificity and

Costa Rica

José F. Blanco

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Latin America and the Caribbean 2005

Encyclopedia entry

The earliest human settlements in Costa Rica probably date to between 12000 and 8000 b.c.e. Established sedentary villages appeared between 8000 and 4000 b.c.e., while organized cultures likely developed around 500 c.e. Basketry, twining, and netting date back to 5000 b.c.e., and loom weaving has been traced to around 1800 b.c.e. Jade carving was widely practiced in the area, but carvings were also created with quartz, serpentine, and slate. Metallurgical work in gold and copper was widespread. C

Mexican Headwear

Beverly Chico

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Latin America and the Caribbean 2005

Encyclopedia entry

Within the territory known as Mexico, there existed a dramatic division between headwear worn by indigenous tribes prior to, and then after, the Spanish conquest of the 1500s. This sudden break was most evident when huge feathered headdresses worn by the ruling elite Aztec and Maya kings and warriors disappeared, to be replaced by European wigs and plumed hats on Spanish government officials, tall miters for Roman Catholic Church hierarchy, and metallic helmets on soldier-conquistadors. The desig

Central American Headwear

Beverly Chico

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Latin America and the Caribbean 2005

Encyclopedia entry

Central America includes seven countries: Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama. A tropical jungle covers eastern sections of Honduras and Nicaragua along the “Mosquito Coast.” Geography has influenced the development of clothing and headwear in this region. After the Spanish arrived in the 1500s, Europeans began dominating local inhabitants, using them as miners, farm laborers, or for maritime trade. Slaves were also transported from Africa and the West Indi

The China Poblana

Virginia Davis

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Latin America and the Caribbean 2005

Encyclopedia entry

As mestiza (female of mixed race) dress in Mexico evolved from the seventeenth century onward, the red, green, and white china poblana outfit emerged from china poblana folk dress. This is now the female counterpart of the male charro (horseman) costume. These both became fiesta and dance wear, being regarded as an expression of national identity. Poblana is an adjective usually meaning: from the city/state of Puebla, although the word can also refer to a rural background. The term china derives

Maya Dress and Fashion in Guatemala

Barbara Knoke de Arathoon and Rosario Miralbés de Polanco

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Latin America and the Caribbean 2005

Encyclopedia entry

Maya or indigenous dress, or traje, as well as the many weavings that are an integral part of both daily and ceremonial life, embody multiple, complex, and ambivalent types of symbolism. Any attempt to present an overview can easily become a simplistic endeavor. Traje and textiles are silent but eloquent expressive forms conveying multiple meanings, especially by women, as they are the principal medium through which ethnic identity is transmitted and constructed. This identity is shaped at indivi

Clothing and Identities in the Eyes of Women Comalapan Painters of Guatemala

Linda Asturias de Barrios

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Latin America and the Caribbean 2005

Encyclopedia entry

There is a relationship between weaving and clothing and painting about “who we are” in Comalapa, Guatemala. A particular group of Guatemalan Mayan women have transposed weaving skills into the painting of canvas with oil paints and have made a contribution to national, ethnic, and gender debates by means of painting with the soul of Mayaness, womanhood, motherhood, and the eyes and hands of backstrap-loom weavers.

Spanish Influences in Maya Clothing of Guatemala

Olga Arriola de Geng

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Latin America and the Caribbean 2005

Encyclopedia entry

With the arrival of Spanish colonization, the Maya of Guatemala—mainly the men, because they were in closer contact with the colonial Spanish world—were forced to modify their clothing. The new garments were copied and adapted from Spanish fashion, which was worn in those days by farmers, craftsmen, and other members of the working class who had arrived from Spain. The men adopted the shirt and the zaragüelles or breeches (zaragüelles are a type of wide breeches, used in Valencia and Murcia, in w

Used Clothing

Mélissa Gauthier

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Latin America and the Caribbean 2005

Encyclopedia entry

Although not new, the global circulation of secondhand clothing from the West to the Third World has expanded rapidly over the past two decades. The United States is the world’s largest exporter of used clothing, American exports having grown significantly since the late twentieth century. Different countries subject imported American secondhand clothing to various trade policies, from liberalization to protectionist. A recent review by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (

National Dress of Panama: La Pollera

Laurie Harris and Tasha Lewis

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Latin America and the Caribbean 2005

Encyclopedia entry

The national dress of Panama, called la pollera, is a strong symbol of Panamanian identity, with its unique artisanship, which is most beautifully displayed during holiday processions and folkloric dance performances, and by brides on their wedding day. This primarily hand-sewn costume consists of full gathered skirts, petticoats, and ruffled blouses, all decorated with laborious elements such as embroidery, appliqué (technique where one fabric is sewn onto the surface of another fabric to create

The Maya of Tecpán, Guatemala

Carol Hendrickson

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Latin America and the Caribbean 2005

Encyclopedia entry

While much can be written about Guatemalan traje (Maya dress) in general, the Maya experience of dress should always be understood in the context of specific social conditions, historical frames, and cultural meanings. In the case of one municipality—TecpánGuatemala—it is useful to consider the issues that Tecpanecos (residents of Tecpán) experience, talk about, and act upon daily in relation to Maya dress. Late-twentieth-century and early-twenty-first-century fashion in Maya dress, notably the h

Zapotec Clothing in Oaxaca

Grace Johnson

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Latin America and the Caribbean 2005

Encyclopedia entry

The geographical setting of Oaxaca, except for narrow coastal strips, consists of mountainous zones with isolated peaks, broken by numerous deep canyons, valleys, and basins. The less rugged areas form the major concentrated settlement areas. The great variety of terrain, cultures, and languages make Oaxaca (a southern state of Mexico) one of the most complex regions in the country. In the past, the high mountains and difficulties of communication perpetuated the isolation of the people of Oaxaca

Overview of Central America

Blanco F. José

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Latin America and the Caribbean 2005

Encyclopedia entry

Central America comprises the seven nations sharing the isthmus connecting North and South America. The northernmost country in the group is Guatemala, followed by Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama. Recently independent Belize is the only country where English is the official language. Spanish is the dominant language in the rest of the countries, although over seventy other tongues are spoken in the region. A diverse geography has provided a rich source of fibers and natur

Sna Jolobil: A Textile Cooperative

Kathryn Klein

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Latin America and the Caribbean 2005

Encyclopedia entry

While the ancient Maya tradition of backstrap loom weaving and the wearing of traditional clothing had continued for millennia, the quality of handwoven work had waned by the early 1970s, as it had in many other areas of the world. With a keen interest in Maya textile traditions, two young businessmen, Walter F. Morris Jr. (Chip) of the United States and Pedro Meza Meza of the Maya town of Tenejapa, Chiapas, initiated what was to become the Sna Jolobil (The House of the Weaver) weaving cooperativ

Folklore Influences in Mexico and Panama

Tasha Lewis

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Latin America and the Caribbean 2005

Encyclopedia entry

Appliqué and related techniques in apparel styles are representative of Mexico’s and Panama’s culture and identity. Panamanian molas, made by the Kuna Indians of Panama, were originally worn as blouses by the women. Today, molas and mola art are sold as tapestries, tote bags, and Western-styled blouses. Mexican appliqué has a long tradition in many of the nation’s traditional or folkloric dress styles, which many tourists may associate with the country. Modern-day designs using appliqué, embroide

Ancient Maya

Matthew Looper

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Latin America and the Caribbean 2005

Encyclopedia entry

The Maya civilization, particularly during the Classical period (250–900 c.e.), provides some of the most extensive evidence for dress in the ancient Americas. Sculpted, modeled, and painted images portray the rituals and myths surrounding prestigious status. Generally, only durable materials survive. Elite burials provide the most significant remains; there is considerably more information on prestigious ritual dress than on clothing in other contexts. Maya dress generally changed little, and ma

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