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The Center for Traditional Textiles of Cuzco, Peru

Nilda Callañaupa and Timothy Wells

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Latin America and the Caribbean 2005

Encyclopedia entry

In 1994 the Center for the Traditional Textiles of Cusco (CTTC: Centro de Textiles Tradicionales del Cusco) was established to promote and enable the weaving of traditional textiles in the Cuzco region of the central Andes. In part, CTTC recognized that the weaving and use of traditional textiles would approach extinction within the present generation if something was not done to alter the situation.

South American Headwear

Beverly Chico

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Latin America and the Caribbean 2005

Encyclopedia entry

Two basic factors influence clothing and headwear worn by South Americans; one derives from ancient indigenous cultures, and the other from cultural diffusion resulting from the conquest and colonization by the Spanish and Portuguese. Most South Americans today are of mixed racial heritage. The modern urban population usually wears European- or American-style manufactured clothing and headwear. In more isolated areas, characteristic head coverings are still worn, exemplified in three climate regi

Representations of Tradition in Latin American Boundary Textile Art

Elyse Demaray, Melody Keim-Shenk and Mary A. Littrell

Source: The Latin American Fashion Reader 2005

Book chapter

“Tradition,” is an elusive term that scholars understand in different and often conflicting ways. Some of the primary questions involved in determining the precise meaning of tradition as it relates to boundary textiles include the following: when we speak of traditional textiles, are we referring to designs, colors, fibers, the means of production or all of these elements from the past? How can we determine when a “tradition” began? How long does a design, color, fiber, or technology have to per

“Why Do Gringos Like Black?” Mourning, Tourism and Changing Fashions in Peru

Blenda Femenías

Source: The Latin American Fashion Reader 2005

Book chapter

One April afternoon, Nilda Bernal took an order for a black vest from my friend. While Patricia Jurewicz and I were riding the bus from Arequipa to the Colca Valley for Semana Santa (Holy Week) of 1992, we had discussed buying embroideries. A textile designer from the United States then living in Peru, Jurewicz was intrigued by bordados, the distinctive Colca-style embroidered clothes.My writings about Peruvian dress, especially Colca bordados, include Femenías 1996, 1997, 2001, 2004, and n.d. To

The Nasca on the South Coast of Peru

Mary Frame

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Latin America and the Caribbean 2005

Encyclopedia entry

Knowledge of how people dressed in the Nasca region during the early phases of the Nasca period (1–300 c.e.) is reconstructed largely from archaeological sources. The garments themselves have been preserved in burials and ritual deposits, and technical studies of the garments reveal how they were made. In the middle and late phases (300–600 c.e.), textile preservation is too sporadic to provide an accurate overview of Nasca dress. Nasca people embellished their woven clothing with dyeing, embroid

Ancient Peruvian Gold and Silver Jewelry: Fashion and Religion

Carole Fraresso

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Latin America and the Caribbean 2005

Encyclopedia entry

Gold metalworking is a human activity that dates back to antiquity. Mining and refining gold, combining it with other metals to obtain harder or colored alloys, melting it, and forming it into outstanding objects—knowledge of these techniques contributed to increasing the value of gold and justified its use in all ancient hierarchical societies.Worldwide, gold has fascinated human beings. From Mesopotamia to Europe, to the Middle East, ancient Egypt, India, China, and Mexico, gold has been the su

Dress of the Virgin of the Rosary in Eighteenth-century Peru

Kelly Mohs Gage

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Latin America and the Caribbean 2005

Encyclopedia entry

Spanish colonization of the Americas had a profound effect on all aspects of native people’s culture—particularly through religious art. The friars of all orders employed visual images, including those of the Virgin Mary, as didactic tools in educating and indoctrinating the native people, often commissioning native artists to produce images and sculptures of the Virgin to adorn church interiors. Pulling attributes and iconography from European and native religious and social traditions, the arti

Southern Highland Peru

Andrea M. Heckman

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Latin America and the Caribbean 2005

Encyclopedia entry

Cloth serves many purposes in the daily and ritual lives of contemporary Quechua people in the southern highlands of Peru. Handwoven alpaca and sheep-wool textiles provide the basic needs of warmth and protection in these rugged, cold mountain environments. The people of the vast cordilleras (mountain ranges) stretching from Cuzco to Lake Titicaca were in many ways deeply influenced by their ancient Tiwanaku and Inka ancestors. In the Inka Empire and the era of its influence, now known as the Lat

Visualizing Difference: The Rhetoric of Clothing in Colonial Spanish America

Mariselle Meléndez

Source: The Latin American Fashion Reader 2005

Book chapter

Walter Mignolo observes that the lack of writing along with the lack of clothing and cannibalism constituted three crucial elements often used in the construction of Amerindian images: “Not having it yet or having it in excess were two cognitive moves used by Europeans in constructing the identity of the self-same by constructing at the same time, the image of the other” (Mignolo 1992: 312). Written as well as visual texts usually contrasted the nakedness of the indigenous people with the presenc

Pre-Hispanic Northern Peru

Amy Oakland

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Latin America and the Caribbean 2005

Encyclopedia entry

Although rare in most parts of the world, objects of a usually perishable nature including wood, feathers, plant materials, and ancient textiles have been preserved from early periods along the desert Pacific Coast of South America, a region extending from central Peru to northern Chile. Periodic rainfall on the north coast of Peru and seasonal rain in the highland regions have destroyed most ancient fabric there, but contact between regions has assured the preservation of highland cloth on the c

The Peruvian Connection: A Retail Company

Victoria Z. Rivers

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Latin America and the Caribbean 2005

Encyclopedia entry

The Peruvian Connection is a global business with a humble beginning. Although the brand began with sweaters made from high-quality natural fibers, the Peruvian Connection currently designs, manufactures, and markets seasonal lines of women’s and men’s clothing, fashion accessories, and products for the home. The Peruvian Connection has an interesting story, for the company successfully maintains an artisan-made brand image based on Andean and international traditional textile techniques, materia

The Shuar and Achuar of Ecuador and Peru

Nancy B. Rosoff

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Latin America and the Caribbean 2005

Encyclopedia entry

During the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, Shuar and Achuar groups of Ecuador’s eastern Amazonian lowlands made and wore dazzling ornaments that stood out in contrast to the monochrome world of the jungle. The sonorous environment of the forests was enhanced by the tinkling and rhythmic sounds of seed and cut-shell necklaces and belts worn by men and women during dances. Prior to the introduction of trade goods, agricultural gardens and the surrounding forests furnished all the mat

Choquecancha, Peru

Katharine E. Seibold

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Latin America and the Caribbean 2005

Encyclopedia entry

Choquecancha is a peasant farming community in the province of Cuzco, Peru, south-central Andes, which now interacts with the national and international economies. Constructed by at least the Inkan period, the community consists of two thousand Quechua speakers, who refer to themselves as “the Last Inkas,” alluding to the rapid acculturation throughout Peru to Western culture. Choquecancha is a frequent winner of the best textile-weaving community award in the province or country, demonstrating c

Far Eastern Influences in Latin American Fashions

Araceli Tinajero

Source: The Latin American Fashion Reader 2005

Book chapter

Textile Arts of Taquile Island, Peru

Elayne Zorn

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Latin America and the Caribbean 2005

Encyclopedia entry

Taquile is a small island in Lake Titicaca, on the Peruvian side, in the Andean altiplano (high plateau) at nearly 13,000 feet (3,815 meters), above sea level. This community’s indigenous, Quechua-speaking inhabitants are renowned worldwide for their dramatically colored finely handwoven textiles and for their model of community-controlled tourism. Taquile is one of an ever-smaller number of Peruvian highland communities whose members both create and wear handwoven textiles as their daily dress a

He Gave Her Sandals and She Gave Him a Tunic: Cloth and Weddings in the Andes

Lynn A. Meisch

Source: Wedding Dress Across Cultures 2003

Book chapter

The Inca empire, that extended along the Pacific coast and Andean highlands from northern Argentina and Chile to the southern edge of Colombia, was composed of a multitude of polities and ethnic groups. Our knowledge of Inca customs, including matrimonies, comes primarily from Spanish chronicles, colonial written accounts of the Andean world, which must be read with the knowledge that the descriptions of Inca life were filtered through the eyes of men intent on political control, economic exploit

Christianity, Cloth and Dress in the Andes

Lynn A. Meisch

Source: Undressing Religion. Commitment and Conversion from a Cross-Cultural Perspective 2000

Book chapter

The territory that constituted the Inca Empire (much of Peru, Bolivia and Ecuador and part of northern Argentina and Chile) contained societies that were among the most textile-oriented in the world. The collections of pre-Hispanic textiles in museums worldwide, including cloth from such pre-Inca cultures as Paracas, Nazca, Moche and Chimu, offer stunning visual testimony to the skills of ancient spinners and weavers and of the primacy of cloth in the Andean world.

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