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Sophia Kokosalaki

Amber Jane Butchart

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Designer Biography

Balkan Outlaws and Bandits

William Bartlett

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Medieval Balkan societies were predominantly rural. Gradually conquered by the Ottoman Turks from the mid-fourteenth to the mid-sixteenth centuries, they were increasingly taxed during Ottoman rule in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Tax exemptions were gradually rescinded, leading to the growth of banditry. The bandits, known as gusars, hajduks, klephtes, or uskoks, were often men unable or unwilling to pay increased taxes, who had been expelled from their land or had escaped from serfd

Hellenistic Jewelry

Monica M. Jackson

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Hellenisticjewelry (ca. 323–31 b.c.e.) was conceptually sophisticated. It combined new forms from the East with homogeneity of style and virtuosity of technique. Workshop competitiveness and a willingness to experiment with structure and design ensured that the goldsmith and toreutic artist achieved complete mastery over the material. The major centers of production were northern Greece (Macedonia, Thrace, and Thessaly), southern Italy, southern Russia, Asia Minor, Syria, and Egypt.

Ancient Greek Dress

Mireille M. Lee

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Ancient Greek dress refers to dress of the archaic (ca. 700–480 b.c.e.), classical (ca. 480–323 b.c.e.), and Hellenistic (ca. 323–146 b.c.e.) periods. In antiquity, the Greek-speaking world included mainland Greece and the islands of the Aegean, as well as the western coast of Asia Minor (modern Turkey) and Magna Graecia (including southern Italy and Sicily). Dress varied according to region; some garments and perfumes, for example, were identified by their cities of origin. Unfortunately, many o

Geography and Climate: Southeast Europe

Liz Mellish

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Southeast Europe is predominantly mountainous, with steep valleys and flat plains; in the early twenty-first century it is occupied by Greece, Albania, Macedonia, Kosovo, Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Slovenia, Romania, Moldova, and Bulgaria. The geography here has always strongly influenced dress. Areas near trade routes had greater access to raw materials. The climate varies from continental in the inland and more northern areas to Mediterranean in coastal areas and south

Classical Greek Dress and Contemporary Fashion

Jennifer Park

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Examples of classical Greek art, such as the Winged Victory of Samothrace, have inspired numerous designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries, fascinated with the idealized beauty represented in the sophisticated simplicity of Hellenistic dress. Classical dress had no form in itself, being constructed from a single rectangular piece of cloth. As the twentieth century progressed, designers reacting against corsets sought a new vocabulary in unstructured dressing. Couturiers like Paul Poi

Greece

Linda Welters

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Greece is a comparatively small country, yet it commands an important position in the history of dress. Situated at the crossroads of Asia and Europe, with Egypt on the opposite shore across the Mediterranean Sea, Greece has experienced many political and cultural upheavals that have influenced the manner in which its inhabitants dressed. Likewise, the attire of the ancient Greeks has affected the clothing choices of other cultures, past and present.

Fashion and Evolutionary Theories in Nineteenth-Century Greece

Artemis Yagou

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The processes of imitation and adaptation are central to understanding creativity. Human cultures evolve through a continuous exchange of ideas, beliefs, habits, and forms. The rise of a Western-type society in Greece in the nineteenth century provides an example of the interplay between different ideas. Dress and fashion in particular constitute a fertile field where such exchanges take place. Exaggerations of Western fashion, as well as in other manifestations of imitating the West, became a so

Girls’ Uniforms in Greek Schools

Artemis Yagou

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The transformations of school dress provide crucial indicators of society’s attitudes toward children and young people. In Greek schools, girls’ uniforms have played a major role in the production and reproduction of social order and the control of female bodies following dominant, authoritarian mentalities. However, girls’ uniforms have also incorporated a range of other meanings, including transgression, fashionability, as well as nostalgia, and these meanings continue to evolve into the twenty

The Portrayal of Balkan Dress in Western Travel Books

Antonia Young

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Only a few Western travelers have focused specifically on the dress they encountered, and travel books generally devote a very small proportion of their texts and illustrations to clothes or national dress, often observing simply that they were “picturesque” or “colorful.” Most include at least one photograph of a woman in national dress, but without precise information. Many travel writers focused more on architecture, although this can include early dress depicted in frescoes, paintings, and th

Sight, Sound, and Sentiment in Greek Village Dress

Linda Welters

Source: Dress Sense. Emotional and Sensory Experiences of the Body and Clothes 2007

Book chapter

An Athenian Wedding, Year 2000

Helen Bradley Foster

Source: Wedding Dress Across Cultures 2003

Book chapter

A couple may not marry during Lent. With this exception, a wedding may take place in any month, with May, June and September being the popular choices primarily because of the fine weather. A wedding may be held on any day, but most occur on weekends, especially on Sundays, the day preferred by priests. Because of the limited number of Sundays, three or four marriages commonly take place on the same day in a religious ceremony that lasts about thirty minutes.

Introduction: Folk Dress, bath-house (pirts) supernatural Supernatural Beliefs, and the Body

Linda Welters

Source: Folk Dress in Europe and Anatolia. Beliefs about Protection and Fertility 1999

Book chapter

Before discussing the theoretical underpinnings of beliefs about protection and fertility, it is necessary to define some of the terms used by the contributors to this book. Of prime importance is the meaning of folk and folklore, because it affects our understanding of folk dress.

The Peloponnesian “Zonari”: A Twentieth-century String Skirt

Linda Welters

Source: Folk Dress in Europe and Anatolia. Beliefs about Protection and Fertility 1999

Book chapter

Barber considers the string skirt “among the first garments ever depicted on human beings” (see Chapter 2, this volume: 21). These string skirts are belts or bands that incorporate long unwoven strings, fringes or tassels. Archaeological evidence indicates that they existed in Europe as far back as the Palaeolithic era. The earliest evidence for these skirts is from the Gravettian culture of southern Europe (26,000–20,000 BC). The so-called Venus figures from this culture wear belts or bands arou

Gilding the Lily: Dress and Women’s Reproductive Role in the Greek Village, 1850–1950

Linda Welters

Source: Folk Dress in Europe and Anatolia. Beliefs about Protection and Fertility 1999

Book chapter

Three studies in the anthropology of modern Greece are useful in examining women’s roles for the regions studied, because they focus on villages I visited during fieldwork for this project. Ernestine Friedl’s Vasilika (1965) described the social structure and way of life in a village on the Boeotian plains. Juliet du Boulay’s Portrait of a Greek Mountain Village (1974) examined life in a remote village in northern Euboea she called Ambéli, a pseudonym.In 1990, one interviewee in a remote Euboean

Greek Beads of the Mycenaean Period (ca.1650–1100 bc): The Age of the Heroines of Greek Tradition and Mythology

Helen Hughes-Brock

Source: Beads and Bead Makers. Gender, Material Culture and Meaning 1998

Book chapter

As an archaeologist contributing to a largely anthropological volume, I must point out certain problems specific to archaeology in general in the study of beads, but like my fellow contributors I focus upon a particular time and place. I have chosen a society whose beads are an exceptionally rich source of information about some aspects, but rather disappointing with regard to information on the relation of beads to gender.

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