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Viktor & Rolf

Aimee Scott

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Designer Biography

Viktor & Rolf*

Angel Chang

Source: The Berg Companion to Fashion 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Viktor & Rolf ’s first collection won the grand prize at the Salon européen des jeunes stylists (1993), a fashion festival in the southern French city of Hyères. When deconstruction was the trend, Viktor & Rolf reconstructed by piling layers of men’s button-down shirts to form ball gowns. The following year they suspended flashy gold garments adorned with oversized ribbons and excessive decorations from the ceiling in their installation L’Apparence du vide (1994) at the Galerie Patricia Dorfman,

Muslim Dress and the Head-Scarf Debate

Annelies Moors

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Debates about the presence of students wearing head scarves in public schools in West Europe started in the late 1980s; about a decade later, the employment of women wearing head scarves also became the focus of attention. These debates need to be seen within a context in which a new generation of Muslims (often second-generation migrants) started to enter the educational system and then the labor market. As new Muslim citizens, these young men and women have increasingly become socially and poli

The Netherlands

José Teunissen

Translated by Michael Gibbs

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

In the seventeenth century the Netherlands played a prominent role in fashion, transforming Spanish Catholic court fashion into sober, monochrome clothing symbolizing Calvinist Dutch burgher culture. Around 1800 most Dutch people wore regional dress; a small elite followed urban Parisian fashions, but several years behind. The rising bourgeoisie in large cities already tended to break away from traditional clothing with obvious class distinctions, yet frugality was always regarded as a principal

Needle Games: A Discussion of Mixed Embeddedness

Jan Rath

Source: Unravelling the Rag Trade. Immigrant Entrepreneurship in Seven World Cities 2002

Book chapter

Hundreds of Turkish immigrants, legal and illegal alike, who worked in the garment industry gathered on a dark November night in the Moses and Aaron Church in downtown Amsterdam, the Netherlands (Rath 1999). The same church had been in the limelight a few years earlier during a turbulent but successful political campaign resulting in the regularization of a group of illegal immigrants (van Groenendael 1986). Since then, local civil rights activists had attributed a special symbolic meaning to thi

Sewing up Seven Cities

Jan Rath

Source: Unravelling the Rag Trade. Immigrant Entrepreneurship in Seven World Cities 2002

Book chapter

The world is in a state of flux. Capital, goods and people move around the globe, generating vast changes and linking distant social, political and economic configurations. The creation and preservation of economic ties over long distances is intriguing, but in themselves nothing new. In days of yore, merchants in pursuit of market expansion ventured on to the silk route, sailed to Hanseatic towns, embarked on colonial projects, or travelled Europe’s dirt roads as hawkers. The current internation

Amsterdam: Stitched up

Raes Stephan, Jan Rath, Marja Dreef, Adem Kumcu, Flavia Reil and Aslan Zorlu

Source: Unravelling the Rag Trade. Immigrant Entrepreneurship in Seven World Cities 2002

Book chapter

In the Netherlands, as in other industrialized countries, immigrants have played a significant role in the development of the garment industry. In Amsterdam, the industrial production of garments was stimulated in the nineteenth century by the arrival of Roman Catholic immigrants from Westphalia and Jewish immigrants from Eastern European countries. They laid the basis for a flourishing Dutch garment industry that reached its a peak in the early 1960s. As in other industrialized countries, garmen

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