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Tilda Swinton

Barbara Brownie

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Article

Scottish actor, model, and muse Tilda Swinton was born in London in 1960. After graduating from Cambridge she began a career acting on stage, and later in film, winning an Academy Award for her performance in Michael Clayton. She has played muse to fashion designers and artists alike, collaborating on a collection for Viktor & Rolf (2003) and starring in a short film by fashion designer Hussein Chalayan (Absent Present, 2005). In recent years she has been the face of campaigns for designers inclu

Vivienne Westwood’s Elevated Ghillie Shoes from 1993

Hayley-Jane Edwards-Dujardin

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Article

For her fall/winter 1993–1994 “Anglomania” collection, Vivienne Westwood perched her models on extremely elevated platform shoes. Inspired, as most of her collection, by Scottish traditional garments, the platform shoes reinterpreted ancestral ghillies worn for folkloric dances. However, apart from the lacing structure, the shoes were more reminiscent of fetish footwear—an aesthetic typical of Vivienne Westwood’s taste for combining conservatism with subversiveness. When the British designer rein

Vivienne Westwood, “Anglomania,” Fall/Winter 1993–1994

Hayley-Jane Edwards-Dujardin

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Article

From being queen of punk in the mid-1970s, Vivienne Westwood slightly moved, from the 1980s, to being a supporter of British fashion’s establishment. Inspired by traditional craftsmanship and eighteenth-century art, the designer has since infused her collections with historicism. With her fall/winter 1993–1994 “Anglomania” show, Vivienne Westwood epitomized her interest in English and Scottish traditions while mingling masculine tailoring with outrageously feminine forms. Featuring laced bodices,

Tweed

Fiona Anderson

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Tweed cloth originated in Scotland in the early nineteenth century. At that time, it was only made from woolen yarns in the twill weave. From the 1820s to the present, tweed has been characterized by a huge range of color and weave effects. The main account given for the origins of the name tweed is that it is based on a misreading of the Scottish word tweel or twill (which was the weave characteristic of Scottish woolens at that time) for tweed. By the 1840s, tweed was established as a term used

Kilt

Andrew Bolton

Source: The Berg Companion to Fashion 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The kilt as we know it today originated in the first quarter of the eighteenth century. Known to the Gaelic-speaking Highlander as the “little wrap” (feileadh beag), it evolved from the “big wrap” (feileadh mor), or belted plaid, the first identifiably “Scottish” costume that emerged in the late sixteenth century. Earlier, the Scottish Gaels had worn the same clothes as their Irish counterparts, namely a shirt known in Gaelic as the léine and a semicircular mantle known in Gaelic as the brat.

Why Does the United Kingdom Not Have National Dress?

Alison L. Goodrum

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The United Kingdom (UK) is multinational, comprising Wales, Scotland, England (with these three forming Great Britain), and Northern Ireland. This alliance is a product of various constitutional reforms and Acts of Union, carried out and revised over several centuries. These ongoing revisions help explain the lack of UK national dress as the expression of a stable, collective identity. The UK is effectively a collection of nations, with their own identities and recognizable national dress. The un

Early History of Dress and Fashion in Great Britain and Ireland

Naomi E.A. Tarrant

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Little is known about clothing in the British islands before the Roman invasion in 43 c.e.. What survives are cloth fragments and amazing jewelry such as brooches and torcs. Pre-Christian graves suggest that women wore tunics. The advent of Christianity possibly resulted in women covering their heads. The medieval period saw Europe stabilize after the raids and invasions of the Dark Ages. Trade increased greatly, much of it related to textiles. From the fourteenth century onward dress styles have

Scotland

Naomi E.A. Tarrant

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

By 1800, those people in Scotland who could afford it dressed in the style of clothing usually known as fashionable West European. This was no different from the dress of others of their class within Britain. There is no folk dress in Scotland, but there are some types of occupational dress that have been associated with Scotland or with particular types of work. Those who had little income for clothing dressed in what they could afford or were given by charities. As in former times, secondhand c

‘Ladies from Hell’

Thomas S. Abler

Source: Hinterland Warriors and Military Dress. European Empires and Exotic Uniforms 1999

Book chapter

Britain recruited its first exotic warriors from its northern frontier. Scotland had long been a source of fighting men for the continent, both before and after union with the English Crown. Scottish archers first served as bodyguards to the French monarch in 1440. In the Thirty Years War, Swedish King Gustavus Adolphus employed some 20,000 Scots, while opposed to Gustavus Adolphus were some 10,000 Scots serving in the army of France (Wood 1987: 13). The oldest infantry regiment in the British Ar

‘Freezing the Frame’: Dress and Ethnicity in Brittany and Gaelic Scotland

Malcolm Chapman

Source: Dress and Ethnicity. Change Across Space and Time 1995

Book chapter

The “traditional dress” of Highland Scotland, in this sense, is a collection of clothing for men: its essential item is the tartan kilt, with the addition of items such as knee-length woolen socks, sgiandu, and sporran. This set of garments has never been the popular dress of anyone, outside the Scottish Highland regiments of the British army, and outside self-consciously folkloric circles (dancing groups, choirs, the “White Heather Club”, and so on). The central item, however, the kilt, does ech

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