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Şule Yüksel Şenler: An Early Style Icon of Urban Islamic Fashion in Turkey

Rustem Ertug Altinay

Source: Islamic Fashion and Anti-Fashion. New Perspectives from Europe and North America 2013

Book chapter

The formative years of the Republic of Turkey were characterized by a series of social and legal reforms implemented under the leadership of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk in order to construct a secular (albeit implicitly Sunni Muslim), modern, Western nation-state with an authentic Turkish essence. In Turkey’s modernization and nation-building program, women were imagined as the builders of a new life, ‘a modern way of living both in the private and the public spaces’ (Göle 1997: 51). They were expected

1690–1815: Chinoiserie, Indiennerie, Turquerie and Egyptomania

Adam Geczy

Source: Fashion and Orientalism. Dress, Textiles and Culture from the 17th to the 21st Century 2013

Book chapter

See, mademoiselle, how that goes well with your Chinese-style hairstyle, your mantle of peacock feathers, your petticoat of celadon and gold, your cinnamon bottoms and your shoes of jade…

1868–1944: The Japoniste Revolution, the Deorientalizing of the Orient and the Birth of Couture

Adam Geczy

Source: Fashion and Orientalism. Dress, Textiles and Culture from the 17th to the 21st Century 2013

Book chapter

Civilization! Read: ‘the era that has lost almost all its creative power…in jewellery as in furniture’; and in one or the other we are compelled to exhume or import. Import what? Indian bracelets of glass filament and Chinese earrings of cut paper? No. But more often the naïve taste that underlies their making.

Introduction

Adam Geczy

Source: Fashion and Orientalism. Dress, Textiles and Culture from the 17th to the 21st Century 2013

Book chapter

We arrived at the opulent bazaars that form the centre of Istanbul, a solidly constructed stone labyrinth in the Byzantine style which served as a vast shelter from the daytime heat. Its huge galleries of arched and vaulted ceilings supported by sculpted pillars were in colonnades, each dedicated to particular kinds of merchandise. Most remarkable were the clothes and the female slippers [babouches], fabrics embroidered or in lamé, cashmeres, carpets, gold, silver or opal-encrusted furniture, the

Transnational Networks of Veiling-fashion between Turkey and Western Europe

Banu Gökarıksel and Anna Secor

Source: Islamic Fashion and Anti-Fashion. New Perspectives from Europe and North America 2013

Book chapter

The Turkish veiling-fashion industry, while paralleling many of the broader trends in apparel production in Turkey, nonetheless has a unique profile. In the autumn of 2008, we conducted a detailed survey with 174 veiling-fashion firms (that is, firms with 10 per cent or more of their production in Islamic dress for women), which we identified through the membership lists of textile associations, advertising and industry fairs. We estimate that there are a total of 200 to 225 such firms in the cou

The Genealogy of the Turkish Pardösü in the Netherlands

R. Arzu Ünal

Source: Islamic Fashion and Anti-Fashion. New Perspectives from Europe and North America 2013

Book chapter

Three-quarter-length overcoats were the most commonly worn outdoor attire mentioned in the accounts of migrant women coming to the Netherlands in the late 1970s. A few Turkish women came alone as workers;most of them were the wives of guest workers and came as temporary residents. The first generation of migrant women described that particular style of overcoat as the first modern and şehirli(urban) item of outdoor clothing they had ever worn. These were relatively close-fitting overcoats, intend

Burqini

Heather Marie Akou

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Global Perspectives 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The burqini is a full-body swimsuit that combines the terms burqa and bikini. Aheda Zanetti, an Australian designer of Lebanese descent, created the burqini in 2006 as an alternative form of dress for Muslim women serving as lifeguards in Australia. Within months it became available to the general public worldwide. Buyers have included both Muslims and non-Muslims, who wear it for reasons ranging from modesty, to protection from UV light, to enhanced athletic performance. Similar full-body swimsu

Iraqi Dress

Ulrike Al-Khamis and Saad Lafta Hami

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Iraq is one of the largest countries in southwestern Asia. It is bordered by Iran to the east, Turkey to the north, Syria and Jordan to the west, and Saudi Arabia and Kuwait to the south. Iraq’s capital is Baghdad. Geographically, the country combines three distinct regions: fertile mountain regions in the north, the rich alluvial valleys of the Euphrates and Tigris Rivers, and expansive, arid desert plains in the west. Both the terrain and the bordering countries have had an influence on dress.

An Omani Fashion Designer

Julia M. Al-Zadjali

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Nawal bint Hamed bin Hamid Al-Hooti is an Omani national in her thirties and a self-taught fashion designer. Throughout her youth Nawal had had a love for fashion and began designing at a surprisingly young age, visiting the tailor shop near her home. The Omani people were not always as open to worldly fashions as they are in the early twenty-first century, but since the ascension of Sultan Qaboos bin Said Al-Said to the throne in 1970, there have been many social and economic changes in Oman. Na

Omani Dress

Julia M. Al-Zadjali

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The English-speaking travelers of the past referred to Oman as the hidden corner of Arabia, yet Oman was and remains well known to its neighbors. It has an elaborate and rich history in the region, and the striking similarities to Oman’s neighbors that are found in dress throughout the country suggest that Oman has experienced many cultural, trade, and economic friendships over the centuries, which have left their mark. It is only in the early twenty-first century that attention is being paid to

Perfume and Incense

Julia Al-Zadjali

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The use of perfumes is widespread throughout the Middle East. Throughout the Arab world a wide variety of spices, aromatic woods, flowers, seeds, and plants, such as ginger, pepper, and sandalwood are used for incense and perfumes. Many of these come from India. The essential oils from these sources are very important ingredients for both incenses (bakhoor) and perfumes. Sold at various prices, it is generally agreed that the more one pays for such an oil, the finer it is. For thousands of years

Dress Reforms of the Early Twentieth Century in Turkey, Iran, and Afghanistan

Derek Bryce

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

During the 1920s and 1930s, three states—Turkey, Iran, and Afghanistan—embarked on a series of wide-ranging programmatic reforms designed to transform their respective societies fundamentally. Often called “modernization from above” because of their association with authoritarian elites, these reforms attempted to impose changes in state, economic, and sociocultural spheres that favored broadly Western models and to replace or restrict the practice of corresponding traditional, indigenous, or Isl

Dress and Tourism

Derek Bryce

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Tourism is an industry of increasing global significance. With international tourist arrivals forecast to exceed 1.5 billion by 2020, it is clear that catering to such vast temporary movements of people has significant impacts on host environments and cultures. In broad terms, this industry is systemically driven to commodify entire cultures in order to render them consumable by large numbers of potential tourists. Perhaps paradoxically, the supposed cultural novelty and exoticism of a destinatio

The Turban and Male Headgear

Beverly Chico

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The turban is a widely used headdress created by winding a piece of cloth, such as linen, cotton, or silk, around the head and sometimes over a cap. Turbans vary greatly in shape, size, folds, and color; the fabric used differs in its length and width. Assigned numerous meanings, turbans have represented religious symbolism, political power, social status, and fashion consciousness. They can also fulfill practical functions, such as providing protection against natural elements like heat, cold, w

Afghan Dress and the Diaspora

M. Catherine Daly

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The rich cultural heritage of Afghanistan is expressed through its material culture and dress forms and practices. Whether living as internally displaced people (IDP) within Afghanistan or as resettled refugees and immigrants in the Afghan diaspora, the wearing of Afghan dress is a visual and material expression of gender, ethnicity, nationality, and religion, which serves to unify Afghan people. Afghanistan is home to more than thirty documented languages. Multiple terms for the same or similar

Afghan Jewelry

M. Catherine Daly

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Jewelry has long played an important role in Afghan dress. It has a fascinating history that dates back thousands of years and follows the ancient trading routes that wove through Afghanistan. What is considered to be Afghan ethnic or indigenous jewelry at the beginning of the twenty-first century is frequently referred to as nomadic jewelry. As in the case of Afghan dress, Afghan jewelry research is fraught with challenges, since many personally owned pieces were sold during the Soviet occupatio

Silk Clothing as an Economic Factor, Safavid Persia

Margaret A. Deppe

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Surviving articles of dress in Persia from the Safavid Empire (1502–1736) illustrate the extensive network of production and distribution of raw silk and silk goods throughout Asia and Europe in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. The economic role of silk textiles for garments and accessories was substantial. Already an important industry before Safavid times, production of silk increased under Shah Abbas I. Magnificent garments, carpets, and other textiles were produced for palace use and

Tiraz: Textiles and Dress with Inscriptions in Central and Southwest Asia

Margaret Anne Deppe

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The term tiraz comes from the Farsi word for “embroider.” In Arabic, the word tiraz means “embellishment” and, by extension, “fashion.” Tiraz describes the ornate Arabic script and associated designs on garments and other textile goods, as well as items adorned with them. Although inscribing the ruler’s name on textiles dates back thousands of years to pharaonic Egypt, tiraz is a distinctly Islamic form of decoration. Beautiful lettering was considered to be among the highest art forms in many cu

Dress from the Gulf States: Bahrain, Kuwait, Qatar, United Arab Emirates

Fadwa El Guindi and Wesam al-Othman

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The Khalij (Arab Gulf) dress that is characteristic of Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, and the Emirates shares the core code underlying dress and some aspects of form with Arab-Islamic dress in general. In the contemporary Arab Gulf region the tendency to mark gender by dress is quite dramatic. In Qatar, for example, women (young and old) dress in black and men (young and old) in white. Both sexes wear long clothing with long sleeves and wear head covers. But these clothing items have different referents

Middle Eastern

Mary H. Farahnakian

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The dress and fashion of Middle Eastern immigrants emphasize copying, retooling, and reinterpreting traditions and developing new identities in the United States and Canada. These changes are generally influenced by their immigration background, dress design, and values of traditional and nontraditional immigrants. They also include religious values and customs as well as types, significance, and appropriateness of dress fit and design.

Iranian Headwear in the Twentieth and Twenty-First Centuries

Mary H. Farahnakian

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

From a Western perspective, exotic Iranian headwear of the twentieth and twenty-first centuries has been largely unknown to people around the world because of the lack of scholarly research on the topic. Additionally, few comparisons of Iranian headwear with that of other countries, particularly those in the Middle East, have been published. Where did the distinctive Iranian headwear originate? What influenced its development? Who developed its unique and divergent styles? This article addresses

Early Iranian Textiles and Their Influence on Pre-Islamic Dress

Irene Good

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Some of the earliest evidence for the use of sheep’s wool can be found in Iran. Much influence and importation of style on dress in Iran can be attributed to both Eastern and Western sources during the later pre-Islamic period, from China to the Levant and even Rome, although textile technology and production has also experienced internal developments and been influenced by local trends. Historically, some cloth was woven in bolts to be cut for garments; other types of cloth were woven garments t

Khil’a: Clothing to Honor a Person or Situation

Stewart Gordon

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Khil’a was a ceremony that included elite and expensive textiles made into particular garments. These garments were used to define a relationship of honorable service. At its simplest, a king or his representative bestowed on another person, usually of lower rank, an outer cloak, shirt, sash, and pants, plus often a turban and shoes. In a robing room adjacent to the court, the recipient donned the whole outfit, reemerged to the acclaim of the assembled nobles, and—if not so before—was deemed “sui

Islam and Islamically Correct Dress (Hijab)

Fadwa El Guindi

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

As a term and dress form, Islamic dress came into common usage in the mid-1970s, when college youth in urban centers of Egypt began to appear in what they called Islamic dress, a practice that gradually spread internally in Egypt across cities and social strata, and elsewhere in the Arab and Islamic world. The manifestation of the emergent Islamic movement in the form of a new type of dress and associated comportment among male and female college youth took society and even the religious authorit

Lebanese Women’s Dress

Nour Majdalany Hakim

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Lebanon is a small country situated on the eastern shores of the Mediterranean. Prior to 1920 Lebanon had been under Ottoman rule and influence for four hundred years, under which cloth weaving and embroidery flourished. Following World War I it became part of the French Mandate, until its independence in 1943. At the turn of the twentieth century, Europe’s Industrial Revolution was gaining momentum, and the Ottoman Empire was weakening. With the introduction of European imports, local craftsmans

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