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The Birth of Paris Fashion

Valerie Steele

Source: Paris Fashion. A Cultural History, 3rd Edition, 2017, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

Le travail des modes est un art: art chéri, triomphant, qui dans ce siècle, a reçu des honneurs, des distinctions. Cet art entre dans le palais des Rois, [et] y reçoit un accueil flatteur.

Introduction

Phyllis G. Tortora and Sara B. Marcketti

Source: Survey of Historic Costume. Student Study Guide, 6th Edition, 2015, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter

The Early Middle Ages, c. 330–1500

Phyllis G. Tortora and Sara B. Marcketti

Source: Survey of Historic Costume. Student Study Guide, 6th Edition, 2015, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter

After studying this chapter, you will be able to:

The Late Middle Ages, c. 1300–1500

Phyllis G. Tortora and Sara B. Marcketti

Source: Survey of Historic Costume. Student Study Guide, 6th Edition, 2015, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter

After studying this chapter, you will be able to:

The Italian Renaissance, c. 1400–1600

Phyllis G. Tortora and Sara B. Marcketti

Source: Survey of Historic Costume. Student Study Guide, 6th Edition, 2015, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter

After studying this chapter, you will be able to:

The Early Middle Ages c. 330 – 1500

Phyllis G. Tortora and Sara B. Marcketti

Source: Survey of Historic Costume, 6th Edition, 2015, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

In 330, Roman Emperor Constantine moved his capital from Rome to Byzantium, a Greek port city. The city, renamed Constantinople, became the capital of the Byzantine Empire. Located at the entrance of the Black Sea, the city and its surrounding territories commanded both land and sea trade routes between the west and central Asia, Russia, and east Asia. At the same time, the city was protected by the rugged Balkan Mountains from the invading barbarians who overran Rome and the Italian peninsula.

The Late Middle Ages c. 1300 – 1500

Phyllis G. Tortora and Sara B. Marcketti

Source: Survey of Historic Costume, 6th Edition, 2015, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

As medieval monarchs successfully centralized their governments, the power of nobles and knights declined. Feudalism began to wane before the 14th century, because kings found new sources of revenue by taxing cities and towns. The income allowed them to hire knights who fought as long as they were paid. Monarchs learned that a paid army was more dependable than feudal nobles.

The Italian Renaissance

Phyllis G. Tortora and Sara B. Marcketti

Source: Survey of Historic Costume, 6th Edition, 2015, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

As lawyers and notaries in Italian city-states sought to justify the independence of these territories, they became interested in the writings of the Classical Period. Many early Renaissance writers, such as Petrarch, a gifted Italian poet and writer who lived from 1304 to 1374, were trained in the law. They embraced the humanistic approach of the classics, rejecting what they saw as a narrow, academic philosophy in the medieval universities. By the early years of the 15th century, a revival of i

Early History of Dress and Fashion in the Nordic Countries

Eva B. Andersson, Margarita Gleba, Ulla Mannering and Marianne Vedeler

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

The Nordic countries comprise Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Aaland, Finland, Iceland, the Faroes, and Greenland. The northernmost part of Germany and the Norse community on Greenland are also considered here to be within this cultural area. Denmark has abundant Bronze and Early Iron Age finds, while Sweden, Norway, Finland, and Greenland have yielded more medieval material. From about 4200 b.c.e., textiles appear at Danish sites; Early Bronze Age graves have yielded complete garments, including women’

Malawi

Barbara W. Blackmun

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Africa, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

Landlocked Malawi is situated in southeast Africa. It has a large lake, a varied topography and climate, and a diverse population. Dress traditions reflect the country’s checkered history, involving foreign influence through migration, trade, and invasion. Nguni warriors from Natal conquered lakeside farming communities in the 1850s, and Arab and Yao slave traders later devastated the land, which became a British protectorate in 1890. Previously, the Maravi and Yao peoples were renowned ironworke

Performance Dress in China and Taiwan

Alexandra B. Bonds, Dongshin Chang and Elizabeth Johnson

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Asia, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

Over three hundred forms of indigenous theater entertainment incorporating song and music have evolved in China, with different forms of music-dramas being performed in specific regions throughout the country. Among these forms, Kunqu (songs of Kunshan) took shape in the Lower Yangtze region of China in the mid-sixteenth century, attained national popularity in the following two centuries, and is still thriving in the early twenty-first century. Jingju (capital drama), commonly known in the West

Republic of Congo and Democratic Republic of Congo

Elisabeth L. Cameron

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Africa, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

Before France and Belgium divided the area in the late nineteenth century, the Republic of Congo (capital Brazzaville) and the Democratic Republic of Congo (capital Kinshasa) were a continuous area that shared cultural traits, including fashion and body art. When the Portuguese arrived at the mouth of the Congo River in the late fifteenth century, they were amazed by the high quality of the raffia cloths produced in the Congo area. The Portuguese introduced European cloth and fashions, and two of

Belarus

Hanna Chuchvaha

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

In the thirteenth century, Belarusian ethnic territory became an independent part of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. Developing handicraft industries and foreign commerce within the duchy in the sixteenth century favored new foreign garments. During the seventeenth century, the wealthy adopted West European, predominantly French, fashion. In 1795, the eastern territories of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, including the Belarusian territories, were annexed to the Russian Empire. In the nineteenth cent

Manchu National Minority

Pamela Kyle Crossley

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Asia, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

The Manchus are descended from the group of Arctic peoples in northeastern Asia that included the ancestors of the modern Ewenki, Oroqens, Hezhen, and closely related peoples of China and Russia. They were speakers of Tungusic languages (the extreme eastern branch of the hypothesized Altaic language family) and for most of their history were hunting and gathering peoples. In the 2003 census, Manchus numbered 6.9 million, or about 5 percent of the total population of China. Nearly all Manchus live

Codpiece

Sandra Lee Evenson

Source: The Berg Companion to Fashion, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

Archaeological Evidence: China and Inner Asia

Zhao Feng and Kuang Yanghua

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Asia, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

During the twentieth century, archaeological finds relating to dress have been recovered in large quantities in China. While some of the garments were made specifically as grave goods, most, it is assumed, are garments used in life to celebrate status and position. These include figures in wood, pottery, jade, and stone, as well as depictions of human figures in murals, paintings, and embroideries.

Early History of Dress and Fashion in Italy and the Iberian Peninsula

Carmen Alfaro Giner and Maria Giuseppina Muzzarelli

Translated by Ana Alacovska

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

Rock engravings in Valcamonica, Italy, indicate the use of looms and thus weaving in the second millennium b.c.e. Tunics were worn by both men and women during pre-Roman times in the Iberian Peninsula.Italian regions colonized by Greece in the eighth century b.c.e. were influenced by Hellenic fashion. The Roman royal period lasted from 753 to 509 b.c.e., followed by the republic and the empire. Clothing during the first two periods was largely austere, although wealth and refinement characterized

Linen

Margarita Gleba

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

Since prehistory, linen, made from flax, has been one of the most widely used textile materials. Linen does not take easily to natural dyes, so before the advent of synthetic colorants it was rarely dyed. Linen is particularly suitable for utilitarian fabrics, owing to its strength, low elasticity, and durability. The earliest known textiles are linen. In Europe, flax was cultivated by the second half of the seventh millennium b.c.e. Some surviving fabrics are so fine that they still cannot be du

Cambodia

Gillian Green

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. South Asia and Southeast Asia, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

In the four centuries between the fall of Angkor to the Siamese in the mid-fifteenth century c.e. and the arrival of French officials in the mid-nineteenth century, there is very little direct information about Khmer dress. It can be presumed, however, that owing to Siamese political dominance, the dress of the upper echelons of society would have conformed to that of the Siamese court during the Ayutthaya period (1351–1767 c.e.) and its successor, the Ratanakosin period (from 1782 on). Siamese s

The Figures on the Tombs: Dress in Brass Rubbings

Moira F. Harris

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

Knight and lady, merchant and priest, scholar and nun—their images once populated the walls and floors of European churches, beginning in the twelfth century. Incised slabs were used first; there remain many of them on the continent of Europe, especially in Germany, Belgium, and Poland. Brasses are more common in the United Kingdom, although many stone slabs bear shadowy cavities where brass figures once glistened. Sepulchral images that still exist, in reality or in copies, offer insights not on

Guinea-Bissau

Walter Hawthorne and Clara Carvalho

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Africa, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

Guinea Bissau, northwest of Guinea and south of Senegal, is located on the Atlantic Coast. The region has long been home to dozens of relatively small-scale, politically decentralized societies, three of the largest of which are the Bijago, Manjaco, and Balanta. The Guinea Bissau region has witnessed the comings and goings of foreigners for many centuries, culminating in Portuguese colonization in the early twentieth century. The broad economic, political, and social changes that were forced upon

Early Evidence of Fashion in West Europe

Sarah-Grace Heller

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

For the Roman period, relatively rich quantities of textual and visual sources (notably sculpture and mosaics) survive; actual items of apparel are extremely rare, as is the case for most areas up through the Middle Ages. Rome had urban populations, skilled artisans, trading networks, and an active culture of social criticism and satire that often used the lexicon of adornment to evaluate merit, reputation, and the erotic. Roman status was defined visually. More problematic for fashion is the rat

The Southeast

Jason Baird Jackson

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

The North American Indians of what is today the Southern or Southeastern United States possess a rich system of dress that can be traced from the late pre-Colonial period through the Colonial era to the present. As this is done, patterns of continuity and change over time can be seen as can the ways that native and nonnative materials, forms, and practices were creatively blended by native peoples to formulate regionally and locally distinctive modes of dress. In pre-Colonial times, the peoples o

Gender

Gertrud Lehnert

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

The basic distinction between female and male dress in the Western world is between women’s skirts and men’s bifurcated trousers. Only in the twentieth century was this abandoned—but in one direction, since, even today, men do not wear skirts, despite some attempts by fashion designers. This does not indicate that trousers are more natural for men, but that in the West, they denote supremacy and masculinity. From the late Middle Ages onwards, increasing emphasis was put on gender differentiation

Beads: Prehistory to Early Twenty-First Century

Robert K. Liu

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Global Perspectives, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

Bead types are varied, and their quantities exist in the billions, especially with regard to glass seed beads; because of this, they have often been treated as the small change of history. Rarely intrinsically valuable, but often previously considered luxuries, and difficult to study due to their diminutive sizes, beads do not yield information unless the researcher has a good understanding of archaeological, anthropological, ethnographic, or other scientific issues. Almost every substance has be

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