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A Soul in Control: The Art of the Automaton

Adam Geczy

Source: The Artificial Body in Fashion and Art. Marionettes, Models, and Mannequins, 2018, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

automaton, automataMy friend, there are three models, Diderot, DenisThe Paradox of the Actorthe man of nature, the man of poetry and the man of acting. The one of nature is not as great as the poet who is in turn not as great as the great actor, the most exaggerated of all. The latter climbs onto the shoulders of the poet, a large wicker mannequin that houses its soul, shaking this figure fearfully, even to the extent that the poet no longer recognizes himself.

Fashion Politics and Practice: Indian Cottons and Consumer Innovation in Tokugawa Japan and Early Modern England, C. 1600–1800

Beverly Lemire

Source: Dress and Ideology. Fashioning Identity from Antiquity to the Present, 2017, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

textilescottonJapansixteenth–seventeenth centuriesEnglandsixteenth–seventeenth centuriesConsumerism, consumptionThe historical characteristics of consumer behavior have been the subject of intensive study for a generation.Among the pioneer studies see: Jan De Vries “Peasant Demand and Economic Development: Friesland 1559–1700,” in William Parker and E. L. Jones eds, European Peasants and their Markets, Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1975; Economic Policy and Projects: The Development of a

The Birth of Paris Fashion

Valerie Steele

Source: Paris Fashion. A Cultural History, 3rd Edition, 2017, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

Le travail des modes est un art: art chéri, triomphant, qui dans ce siècle, a reçu des honneurs, des distinctions. Cet art entre dans le palais des Rois, [et] y reçoit un accueil flatteur.

Liberty of Dress

Valerie Steele

Source: Paris Fashion. A Cultural History, 3rd Edition, 2017, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

Nulle personne de l’un ou de l’autre sexe ne pourra contraindre aucun citoyen ni citoyenne à se vêtir d’une manière particulière, chacun étant libre de porter tel vêtement et ajustement de son sexe que bon lui semblera, sous peine d’être considéré et traité comme suspect, et poursuivi comme perturbateur du repos public.

John Galliano, Graduate Collection, “Les Incroyables” 1984

Paula Alaszkiewicz

Source: Fashion Photography Archive, 2015, Fashion Photography Archive

Article

While studying languages at City and East London College in Whitechapel, London, John Galliano took various design and drawing classes. His tutors encouraged him to apply to the foundation course at Saint Martin’s School of Art (later Central Saint Martins). His application was successful, and through illustration courses he found fashion design. Outside of classes, Galliano worked as sales assistant at Topshop, as a dresser at the National Theatre, and learned tailoring skills as an apprentice f

All Out in the Wash: Convict Stain Removal in the Narryna Heritage Museum’s Dress Collection

Jennifer Clynk and Sharon Peoples

Source: Dress History. New Directions in Theory and Practice, 2015, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

This study extends historian Stefan Petrow’s 2009 study of the convict stain and Narryna by suggesting ways in which its effects can be overcome or reinterpreted, especially in relation to dress. The metaphor of the convict stain relates to a social stigma dating from the 1840s, when anti-transportationists in VDL began a fierce political and moral campaign against convict transportation to the colony. The stain metaphor was a nineteenth-century term applied by historians from the 1850s through t

Gloves ‘of the Very Thin Sort’: Gifting Limerick Gloves in the Late Eighteenth and Early Nineteenth Centuries

Liza Foley

Source: Dress History. New Directions in Theory and Practice, 2015, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

Although leather was essential for the production of a wide range of eighteenth-century objects, including gloves, very little consideration has been given to the significance of the materiality of leather itself. As historian Giorgio Riello has shown, leather was a scarce material in pre-Industrial England. ‘Confined to the natural world and to a stable cattle asset’ (2008: 77), its production largely depended on the meat market, which, in the case of sheep, and to a greater extent cattle, accou

The Eighteenth Century, 1700–1790

Phyllis G. Tortora and Sara B. Marcketti

Source: Survey of Historic Costume. Student Study Guide, 6th Edition, 2015, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter

After studying this chapter, you will be able to:

The Directoire Period and the Empire Period, 1790–1820

Phyllis G. Tortora and Sara B. Marcketti

Source: Survey of Historic Costume. Student Study Guide, 6th Edition, 2015, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter

After studying this chapter, you will be able to:

The Eighteenth Century 1700–1790

Phyllis G. Tortora and Sara B. Marcketti

Source: Survey of Historic Costume, 6th Edition, 2015, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

Upon the death of Louis XIV in 1715, his great-grandson, Louis XV, became king of France at the age of 5. During the time that the king was too young to reign alone, a period called the Regency (1715–1723), baroque art styles that had dominated in the previous century underwent a gradual change. The new style lines were less massive, the curves were more slender and delicate, and an emphasis on asymmetrical balance gained importance. This new, rococo, style reached its height during the reign of

The Directoire Period and the Empire Period 1790–1820

Phyllis G. Tortora and Sara B. Marcketti

Source: Survey of Historic Costume, 6th Edition, 2015, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

The Directoire period (c. 1790–1800) includes the French Revolution and the establishment of the Directory (in French, Directoire), a government by a five-man executive body. The Empire period followed, coinciding generally with the period during which Napoleon Bonaparte was head of state in France. Indeed, the name of the period derives from the name of his era, the Napoleonic empire.

Introduction

Joy Spanabel Emery

Source: A History of the Paper Pattern Industry. The Home Dressmaking Fashion Revolution, 2014, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

When Western clothing began to reveal the shape of the body in the twelfth century, cloth needed to be cut into shapes and the shapes became more complex in each century, thus requiring guides or patterns to form appropriate shapes to fit the body. The paper pattern ultimately became that guide; however, as Frieda Sorber observed in the exhibition catalog Patterns from the MoMu in Antwerp, “The history of the paper pattern is almost as elusive as the ephemeral nature of the object itself” (Heaven

Tailoring and the Birth of the Published Paper Pattern

Joy Spanabel Emery

Source: A History of the Paper Pattern Industry. The Home Dressmaking Fashion Revolution, 2014, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

Any method more simple or rudimentary than this one published by “A Society of Adepts” can scarcely be conceived. It is really the result of experience and differed scarcely but in name from the plan of cutting by “rock of eye.” It must be regarded as proof that a desire or necessity was felt for some method by which tailors could draft these patterns from measures. In default of any other guide, this work may have been of some assistance to the cutters of that time; otherwise it is remarkable t

Development of Dressmaking Patterns: 1800–1860

Joy Spanabel Emery

Source: A History of the Paper Pattern Industry. The Home Dressmaking Fashion Revolution, 2014, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

Through the eighteenth century, methods for communicating the latest fashions were limited to word of mouth, fashion dolls known as Pandoras, fashion plates such as Galerie des Modes, and publications for professional tailors.

Nineteenth-century Technology

Joy Spanabel Emery

Source: A History of the Paper Pattern Industry. The Home Dressmaking Fashion Revolution, 2014, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

Inventors were experimenting with mechanical sewing by the mid-eighteenth century, but it was not until the mid-nineteenth century that a functioning, practical machine was invented by Barthélemy Thimonnier. In “A Brief History of the Sewing Machine,” Graham Forsdyke explains that Thimonnier’s machine was granted a French patent in 1830. By 1840, he had installed eighty of his machines in his factory for sewing uniforms for the French army. Parisian tailors, who feared the machine would put craft

1690–1815: Chinoiserie, Indiennerie, Turquerie and Egyptomania

Adam Geczy

Source: Fashion and Orientalism. Dress, Textiles and Culture from the 17th to the 21st Century, 2013, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

See, mademoiselle, how that goes well with your Chinese-style hairstyle, your mantle of peacock feathers, your petticoat of celadon and gold, your cinnamon bottoms and your shoes of jade…

An ‘Informalizing Spurt’ in Clothing Regimes: Court Ballet and the Civilizing Process

Norman R. Gabriel

Source: Dressed to Impress. Looking the Part, 2011, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

The aim of this chapter is refine the model of long-term social processes proposed by Elias (1994) in the Civilizing Process by concentrating on one particular development in the early history of ballet, the transition from court to romantic ballet during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries in France. According to Carter (1998), dance historiography has suffered from a veneer of glamour, myth and mystery: she argues that the focus on the history of stars and the self-promoting mythologization

Uniforms as Work Dress for Civilians and Military

Thomas S. Abler

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

Uniforms are distinctive but standard forms of dress associated with particular occupations and/or social institutions and either supplied or regulated by the associated institution. In donning a uniform one assumes a social role. Since uniforms are often worn in hierarchal institutions, anyone wearing the same uniform can be expected to perform in a similar fashion in a given situation. In initial battles of World War II the soldiers and sailors of the United States wore the British-style steel

Missionary Dress in Samoa

Prue Ahrens

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

The first European Christian missionaries to establish a station in the South Pacific were members of the London Missionary Society (LMS) who arrived in Tahiti in 1797. Over the next one hundred years a number of European Christian denominations established missions there. For example, mission stations were established in Tonga by Wesleyans (1826) and Marists (1832), and in the Gilberts and Ellice Islands (now Kiribati and Tuvalu) by the LMS (1877) and the Catholic Sacred Heart Mission (1881). In

Uniforms

Nigel Arch

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

A uniform may be defined as a prescribed set of clothing peculiar to a distinct group of individuals within a society. It is distinguished by displays of hierarchy evident on parts of the dress and will usually also display emblems that act as signals only readily interpreted by other members of the group. Hierarchy is expressed in terms of rank, and badges of rank have appeared on such elements of uniform dress as the shoulder strap and cuffs of the upper body garment. Other symbols act as remin

Fashion Journalism

Kate Nelson Best

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

Fashion journalism embraces all kinds of media commentary, but primarily newspaper and magazine articles, about the fashion industry, those who populate the fashion world, and fashion itself. As such, it has commercial, ideological, and symbolic functions that have remained unchanged since the mid-1800s.

Serbia: Ethnic Dress

Jasna Bjeladinović

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

In its rich creative textiles, its role in everyday life and in providing ethnic identity, as well as its visual and aesthetic values, ethnic dress is one of the most valuable and beautiful creations of the cultural heritage of the Serbs. Serb ethnic dress is known mostly due to preserved collections of clothing sets from the nineteenth century and the first decades of the twentieth century and is characterized by a great variety of forms, trimmings, ornaments, and colors. Its splendor is obvious

The Wool Industry in Australia

Prudence Black and Anne Farren

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

That the wealth of Australia rode “on the sheep’s back” is a well-known expression. In particular, it has been Merino wool (a thick fine fleece suited to weaving into quality fabric) for the international and increasingly global clothing market that has been Australia’s most significant product. The Merino sheep has been selectively bred for over two hundred years and is recognized worldwide for its uniformly fine and soft fibers. While Australia is home to only a small proportion of the world’s

Ideology and Ethnic Dress in Croatia

Aida Brenko

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

Ethnic dress has been used for ideological and political purposes in Croatia from the mid-nineteenth century up through the early twenty-first century. In the course of history, individual communities have adopted clothes and clothing styles to differentiate themselves from others. Thanks to its distinctive features, dress has acted as an obvious symbol of identity. Only with the appearance of fashion and the acceptance of global fashion tendencies by elite groups from the mid-sixteenth century o

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