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Chanel Haute Couture, Karl Lagerfeld, Fall/Winter 1984

Michelle Honig

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Article

Shown at the Palais Garnier in Paris, home of the national opera, this fashion show was the most lavish and over-the-top fashion event in Paris at the time and began Karl Lagerfeld’s tradition of showmanship and set design. As with Karl’s first Chanel collection, this collection was panned for its deviation from Chanel’s trademark of easy comfort, with the classic Chanel suit made in a fitted silhouette that outlined the derrière. But it was also praised by others for updating Chanel’s image from

Chanel Haute Couture, Karl Lagerfeld, Fall/Winter 1985

Michelle Honig

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Article

This collection continued the development of Lagerfeld’s Chanel. Beaded looks were made to look like intricate tapestries and the hems of skirts were either floor-length or well above the knee, a deviation from Chanel’s strict rule of creating skirts 2 in. (5 cm) below the knee, no matter the fashion. The final bridal look was a white satin miniskirt suit. Two-tone, matronly pumps were a Chanel signature; the black stilettos in the collection underscored the younger, sexier direction of the house

The Fall and Rise of Erotic Lingerie

Dana Wilson-Kovacs

Source: Dressed to Impress. Looking the Part 2011

Book chapter

The ways in which the body is packaged and visually exhibited are an essential part of consumerism. With a tradition that can be traced back to the eve of modern times, consumerism cannot fully account for the unprecedented attention surrounding the clothing of the body, and the multitude of codes, readings and interpretations accompanying its display. The cultural practices that define the body influence its representations and contemporary ideas of femininity and masculinity. These ideas are re

Aboriginal Dress in the Kimberley, Western Australia

Kim Akerman

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

As in most other areas of Australia, the Aboriginals of the Kimberley were traditionally unclothed. For them, dress consisted of headbands and hair belts. Pubic tassels (made by tying multiple strands of spun fur or hair string into a mop, suspended over the genital area) were worn occasionally. Other elements of dress consisted of ornaments made from feathers, fibers, animal teeth, or shell, the use of which was often dictated by the ceremonial and social status of the wearer. More complex ornam

Tsonga Dress and Fashion

Rayda Becker

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Africa 2010

Encyclopedia entry

All Tsonga in South Africa originate from Mozambique. A small group, they have a complex history involving various migrations and names; Tsonga now primarily denotes a language. In the early 1900s Tsonga women wore skirts made of imported cotton, and beaded jewelry. Later the skirts became shorter and fuller and are now made of wool. The main changes over the last century involve the upper body, the beaded necklaces worn in the 1930s giving way to blouses and T-shirts, worn with the minceka, two

Accessories

Valerie Cumming

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

There is a debate about whether accessories are “essential” or “additional to dress.” From 1800 onwards, there are relatively few new accessories; some gradually disappeared, and others became increasingly important, their roles reflecting a changing world. Many times those actually producing these goods could themselves afford only basic, practical items. Certain crafts were more suited to mechanized production—knitted goods like stockings and printed fabrics—others, like millinery, beaded bags,

The Sash, Patka, or Kamarband

B. N. Goswamy

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. South Asia and Southeast Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The patka—known in its many variations by other names: kamarband, cummerbund, sash, waistband, girdle, phenta, and the like—is the long, elegant textile strip that once adorned nearly every noble waist in India and South Asia. The patka may have found its finest, most sumptuous expression in the Mughal period, but its history is long. The word itself, for all the medieval associations it carries, seems to go back to early Sanskrit and is probably derived from patta—defined in Monier Monier-Willia

Romania: Ethnic Dress

Liz Mellish

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Modern Romania incorporates the regions of Transylvania, Moldavia, and Wallachia. Rulers of the territory of modern Romania have included the Roman, Austro-Hungarian, and Ottoman Empires. Different regions have been affected by differing cultures, influencing dress developments. The basic structure of ethnic dress across Romania is similar to that of the surrounding countries of southeast Europe. Women’s clothing was based on homespun chemises worn with one or two woven wool aprons. Men’s clothin

Montenegro

Zorica Mrvaljevic

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The establishment of the Slavic state known as Doclea (later Zeta) led to the development of an original cultural heritage within the area of present-day Montenegro. The cultural self-awareness became so strong that for the centuries that followed, it enabled effective resistance to the Ottoman Empire, which strove to conquer and assimilate the territory. Immediately before the Ottomans prevailed in the late fifteenth century, the territory was ruled by the Crnojevic dynasty, recognized and suppo

Lithuania: Ethnic Dress

Ruta Saliklis

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Lithuania, situated in northeastern Europe on the Baltic Sea, was until the twentieth century a nation of people living off the land. Up until 1970, more than half of Lithuania’s population lived outside of major urban areas. The country is covered with deciduous and coniferous forests, glacial lakes, and rivers. Many of the forests have been cut down, but until the mid-twentieth century, people living outside of major cities were very isolated, causing them to develop regional linguistic dialect

Accessories of Dress

Celia Stall-Meadows

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The accessories industries in Canada and the United States are multibillion dollar industries that include many diverse product categories. Fashion accessories may be defined as fashion items that are carried or worn, and support or accent apparel fashions. Common accessories used by consumers in North America include hats and headwear, eyewear, scarves, shawls, neckties, handkerchiefs, pocket squares, gloves, belts, handbags, small personal leather goods, luggage, umbrellas, fans, and watches. M

Weapons and Accessories

Willem Vogelsang

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

In Southwest and Central Asia, weapons constituted an essential part of men’s dress, especially for those of some rank and standing in society. Men did not use these weapons only for offensive and defensive purposes; a weapon was an extension of the wearer’s manhood. A beautiful sword, a handsome dagger, or a pair of costly pistols contributed to showing the world that the wearer was a man to be reckoned with. In public, the wearer would very proudly show his costly clothing and weaponry; his bea

Introduction to Māori Dress

Patricia Te Arapo Wallace

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

When early Eastern Polynesian navigators explored Te Moana-Nui ā-Kiwa (“The Great Sea of Kiwa,” or the Pacific Ocean), they discovered the world’s largest oceanic archipelago, Aotearoa—New Zealand. The temperate climate of this geographically isolated land had produced a restricted range of flora and fauna. Away from their tropical homelands, the voyaging ancestors of the Māori people discovered that survival in the colder climate required significantly warmer clothing. They experimented with new

Gaucho Dress

Moira F. Harris

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Latin America and the Caribbean 2005

Encyclopedia entry

The Spanish introduced the horse and horned cattle to the New World, and the first horsemen of North and South America were the indigenous residents of the Pampas and plains. Later, the emigrants who dealt with these animals, from the southern gaucho to the northern cowboy, came to symbolize the region by their lifestyle and their dress. The earliest gauchos dealt in contraband hides and tallow, and were considered as vagabonds. Then, in the nineteenth century, they became soldiers in the wars fo

Contemporary Ecuador

Lynn A. Meisch

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Latin America and the Caribbean 2005

Encyclopedia entry

Ecuador is a small, geographically and ethnically diverse country of 153,822 square miles (398,397 square kilometers), about the size of Oregon. It has three major geographic regions: the hot and humid Pacific Coast; the rainy, sweltering Oriente or Amazon rain forest; and the cool Andean highlands or sierra. The climates of these regions have influenced dress since earliest times.Most of the population is concentrated in Ecuador’s two largest cities, Guayaquil on the coast and the capital Quito

The Peloponnesian “Zonari”: A Twentieth-century String Skirt

Linda Welters

Source: Folk Dress in Europe and Anatolia. Beliefs about Protection and Fertility 1999

Book chapter

Barber considers the string skirt “among the first garments ever depicted on human beings” (see Chapter 2, this volume: 21). These string skirts are belts or bands that incorporate long unwoven strings, fringes or tassels. Archaeological evidence indicates that they existed in Europe as far back as the Palaeolithic era. The earliest evidence for these skirts is from the Gravettian culture of southern Europe (26,000–20,000 BC). The so-called Venus figures from this culture wear belts or bands arou

The Cultural Significance of Belts in Latvian Dress

Linda Welters and Îra Kuhn-Bolšaitis

Source: Folk Dress in Europe and Anatolia. Beliefs about Protection and Fertility 1999

Book chapter

Latvia is located on the eastern shore of the Baltic Sea between Lithuania and Estonia. To the east lies Russia. Latvia is divided into the four provinces of Kurzeme, Vidzeme, Zemgale and Latgale. The indigenous people speak Latvian which, along with Lithuanian, is one of the oldest Indo-European languages still spoken today.

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