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Men in Skirts

Fruzsina Bekefi

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Article

The male skirt has evolved throughout fashion history. From a traditional form of dress worn in Ancient Greece and Rome, non-bifurcated garments worn by men came to be perceived as a challenge to conventional gender norms in the West. Designers such as Jean Paul Gaultier and Vivienne Westwood have used male skirts to interpret masculinity through their designs in the latter half of the twentieth century. In the early twenty-first century, male skirts are gaining traction again.

Véronique Branquinho

Alessandro Esculapio

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Designer Biography

Wendy Dagworthy

Michelle Labrague

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Designer Biography

Donna Karan

Sandra J. Ley

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Designer Biography

Zandra Rhodes, Spring/Summer 1984

Veronica Maldonado

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Article

Rhodes’s spring/summer 1984 collection made its debut in London’s Ritz Carlton hotel. Having studied textiles before designing fashion, Rhodes’s garments utilize fabric with a high degree of detail and craftsmanship. This collection was no exception, with dresses made of embroidered chiffon, metallic sequined ensembles, and dresses encrusted with hanging pearls and crystals, all in pastel color schemes accented with blazes of magenta and deep cerulean. While a few typical 1980s body-conscious, sh

Pierre Balmain

Daphne Stylianou

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Designer Biography

Harriet Selling

Tory Turk

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Designer Biography

Givenchy Couture, Fall/Winter 1988

Aimee Williams

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Article

The year 1988 marked major events for Givenchy. In June, French conglomerate Louis Vuitton Moët Hennessey (LVMH) acquired Givenchy’s couture line. Hubert de Givenchy received his Lifetime Achievement award in October. The fall/winter collection’s focal points were texture and color. Rich greens, purples, and crimson saturated fluid fabrics like satin, velvet, and silk, with matching dyed mink, beaver, and fox coats and stoles. Large dyed feathers made an impact in evening wear, affixed to floor-l

Tsonga Dress and Fashion

Rayda Becker

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Africa 2010

Encyclopedia entry

All Tsonga in South Africa originate from Mozambique. A small group, they have a complex history involving various migrations and names; Tsonga now primarily denotes a language. In the early 1900s Tsonga women wore skirts made of imported cotton, and beaded jewelry. Later the skirts became shorter and fuller and are now made of wool. The main changes over the last century involve the upper body, the beaded necklaces worn in the 1930s giving way to blouses and T-shirts, worn with the minceka, two

Kilt

Andrew Bolton

Source: The Berg Companion to Fashion 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The kilt as we know it today originated in the first quarter of the eighteenth century. Known to the Gaelic-speaking Highlander as the “little wrap” (feileadh beag), it evolved from the “big wrap” (feileadh mor), or belted plaid, the first identifiably “Scottish” costume that emerged in the late sixteenth century. Earlier, the Scottish Gaels had worn the same clothes as their Irish counterparts, namely a shirt known in Gaelic as the léine and a semicircular mantle known in Gaelic as the brat.

Dress of Vanuatu

Lissant Bolton and Jean Tarisesei

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Vanuatu is an archipelago of about eighty small islands in the southwestern Pacific. It is one of the most linguistically complex regions of the world: More than 113 languages are spoken in these islands by a population (at the start of the twenty-first century) of about 200,000. This linguistic diversity is matched by cultural diversity: Not just every island, but every district has had its own distinctive knowledge and practice, and often, its own distinctive dress styles. This diversity from p

Li National Minority

Anne Csete

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The Li national minority of Hainan Island, with a population of 1.24 million, is officially divided into five subgroups: Qi, Ha, Sai, Run, and Meifu. Li dress varies among these subgroups, but common elements include a sarong-like tube skirt, female tattooing, and methods of traditional cloth production. Han cloth and thread were incorporated into Li weaving and embroidery by at least the Song dynasty (960–1279), when significant numbers of Li began to adopt Chinese dress and customs. Li weaving

Ethnic (Folk) Dress in West Europe

Helen Bradley Foster

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

European nations embrace common notions about folk dress as a symbol of cultural identity. The exception is England, a country not credited with a tradition of folk dress. Although the populations of many countries on other continents likewise recognize their own traditions of national dress, none uses the term folk to define that dress. The term and the manner in which its meaning changes over time and place help locate historical ideas about West European ethnic (folk) dress within temporal and

Albania

Andromaqi Gjergji

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Dress is a rich source of information that aids the reconstruction of aspects of Albanians’ way of life in different periods. From the material used, an idea can be gathered of what was produced within the home, what tools were used, and which goods were bought in the market. The ways in which clothes were made and decorated show how people developed their taste for the beautiful and which were their favorite ornaments and colors. The great variety of regional permutations is a clear indication o

Roma Dress

Iulia Hasdeu

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Documentation mentioning the Roma’s presence in Europe dates from the fourteenth century. Originally from India and Persia, many Roma were located in East Europe for centuries, enslaved in Moldavia and Walachia. Following the abolition of slavery, many Roma migrated throughout Europe, mostly westward. Unlike those in the west, most East-European Roma are permanently settled, largely in Romania, Bulgaria, Albania, and the former Yugoslavian republics. Roma groups significantly differ from one anot

Introduction to the Dress of the Pacific Islands

Adrienne L. Kaeppler

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The Pacific Ocean covers one-third of the earth’s surface and is inhabited by hundreds of cultural groups. Some twenty-five thousand islands, ranging from tiny specks of coral to the large island of New Guinea, are occupied by physically diverse peoples, many of whom have mixed and intermixed. Environments range from snowy mountains to raging volcanoes, from steaming rain forests to parched deserts, from coral atolls to volcanic outcrops. These Pacific Islands are usually divided into three histo

Wool

Ingun Grimstad Klepp

Translated by Stig Erik Sørheim

Kjetil Enstad

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Wool is probably the first fiber humans used, and throughout history it has been not only the most utilized fiber but also a commodity of great economic significance. In the twenty-first century, wool plays a more modest role and is primarily associated with quality and tradition.

Gender

Gertrud Lehnert

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The basic distinction between female and male dress in the Western world is between women’s skirts and men’s bifurcated trousers. Only in the twentieth century was this abandoned—but in one direction, since, even today, men do not wear skirts, despite some attempts by fashion designers. This does not indicate that trousers are more natural for men, but that in the West, they denote supremacy and masculinity. From the late Middle Ages onwards, increasing emphasis was put on gender differentiation

Textiles and Dress of the Motu Koita People

Jacquelyn A. Lewis-Harris

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Papua New Guinea, the eastern half of the island New Guinea (the second-largest island in the world), lies just north of Australia and has several hundred outer islands. Annexed and subdivided by the Germans and British in 1884, Papua New Guinea became an independent nation in 1975. The country has a vast variety of cultures and at least eight hundred languages. The Motu and Koita people inhabited the southern coastal and immediate inland areas of Papua New Guinea, living between the western coas

Youthquake Fashions

Joel Lobenthal

Source: The Berg Companion to Fashion 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Throughout the 1950s, British fashion was dominated by the Paris couture, and the long shadow it cast over London couturiers such as Norman Hartnell and Hardy Amies. British manufacturers followed the parameters laid out by the high end of fashion. But the emerging generation wanted something entirely different and entirely their own. They were out of sympathy with the mores of expensive made-to-order clothing. “The couture was for kept women,” said Barbara Hulanicki, who opened the London boutiq

Dressing the Body in Samoa

Sean Mallon

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Samoa consists of two large tropical islands and six smaller ones in the Pacific Ocean, northeast of Fiji. Its people are of Polynesian descent, and the islands have had a complex history of regional interaction. The tropical environment furnished flora and fauna utilized by the people of these islands for the construction of clothing and body modifications. During the nineteenth century dressing the body involved not only covering with garments but also marking or coloring the skin, wrapping it

Dance Costumes in French Polynesia

Jane Freeman Moulin

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Among the customs French Polynesians perpetuate in the twenty-first century, the public performance of choreographed group dances is one of the most popular and highly enjoyed by local audiences. These may be as a school celebration, a way to acknowledge and greet important visitors, an accompaniment to the large buffets that local residents and visitors enjoy at the tourist hotels, or as part of the yearly music and dance competitions known as Heiva. Viewed as a locus of artistic creativity in t

Lavalava (Cloth) of the Rei Metau

Carmen C. H. Petrosian-Husa

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The Rei Metau (People of the Open Sea) live on the Outer Islands of Yap in the Federated States of Micronesia, and they are therefore known as Outer Islanders. About four thousand people inhabit nine small atolls, which together make up no more than about seven square miles (about eighteen square kilometers). They understand themselves as one ethnic group, speak the same language, and live under the authority of their island’s chiefs and of one paramount chief. Lavalava are their national dress a

Philippines: South

Cherubim Quizon

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. South Asia and Southeast Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The Southern Philippines consists of Mindanao, the second largest island in the archipelago, and the Sulu group of islands off its western reaches. Mindanao is known for ceremonial textiles and dress made of ikat-patterned cloth made of Musa textilis fiber, called abacá. Abacá ikat textiles are unique to Mindanao; although traditions of making abacá cloth are found in places like Okinawa, the Visayas, Luzon, Sangihe, and Micronesia, it is only in Mindanao at present that it is patterned with intr

Lithuania: Ethnic Dress

Ruta Saliklis

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Lithuania, situated in northeastern Europe on the Baltic Sea, was until the twentieth century a nation of people living off the land. Up until 1970, more than half of Lithuania’s population lived outside of major urban areas. The country is covered with deciduous and coniferous forests, glacial lakes, and rivers. Many of the forests have been cut down, but until the mid-twentieth century, people living outside of major cities were very isolated, causing them to develop regional linguistic dialect

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