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Koji Tatsuno

Elizabeth Glendinning

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Designer Biography

1868–1944: The Japoniste Revolution, the Deorientalizing of the Orient and the Birth of Couture

Adam Geczy

Source: Fashion and Orientalism. Dress, Textiles and Culture from the 17th to the 21st Century 2013

Book chapter

Civilization! Read: ‘the era that has lost almost all its creative power…in jewellery as in furniture’; and in one or the other we are compelled to exhume or import. Import what? Indian bracelets of glass filament and Chinese earrings of cut paper? No. But more often the naïve taste that underlies their making.

Issey Miyake

Bonnie English

Source: Japanese Fashion Designers. The Work and Influence of Issey Miyake, Yohji Yamamoto and Rei Kawakubo 2011

Book chapter

Clothes … speak many languages … and have to be seen on the outside … as well as felt on the inside.

Overview of Mongolia

Monisha Ahmed

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Walking down the main street in Ulan Bator, Mongolia’s capital, past gray, crumbling Soviet-era buildings, a woman wearing a blue silk del, or robe, contrasts with the robust man by her side in a sober, gray Western-style suit. Walking alongside them are women in skinny jeans, fitted T-shirts, and stiletto heels. But far from the city, a nomad wears his sheepskin robe, sitting astride his horse. Mongolia has many faces. Probably the most celebrated of these is Chinggis Khaan, better known by his

Ladakh

Monisha Ahmed

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. South Asia and Southeast Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Situated in the upper reaches of the Himalayan and Karakoram mountain ranges, Ladakh is India’s high-altitude border region, characterized by an extraordinary desertlike landscape where barren mountains thrust toward an intensely blue sky, punctuated by green oases that reveal human habitation. Living in extreme weather conditions where temperatures drop to minus 58 degrees Fahrenheit (minus 50 degrees Celsius) in winter and rise to 104 degrees Fahrenheit (40 degrees Celsius)in summer, Ladakh’s i

Dress of the Exile: Tibetan

Monisha Ahmed and Susan Vickery

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. South Asia and Southeast Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The most enduring symbol of Tibet’s struggle for freedom is its national flag—a mountain with two snow lions in the foreground and in the background the sun, surrounded by red and blue bands. With the words “Free Tibet” added, it is embroidered onto T-shirts, screen-printed on bags, made into labels for shawls, and knitted into hats and baby sweaters. The design of the flag dates from the seventh century, when various regiments within the Tibetan army had military flags depicting single or paired

Omani Dress

Julia M. Al-Zadjali

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The English-speaking travelers of the past referred to Oman as the hidden corner of Arabia, yet Oman was and remains well known to its neighbors. It has an elaborate and rich history in the region, and the striking similarities to Oman’s neighbors that are found in dress throughout the country suggest that Oman has experienced many cultural, trade, and economic friendships over the centuries, which have left their mark. It is only in the early twenty-first century that attention is being paid to

Mali

Mary Jo Arnoldi

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Africa 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Mali, in West Africa, is landlocked and borders seven countries. Although Mali has experienced rapid urbanization since the mid-twentieth century, the majority of Malians still live in rural communities. There are over fourteen ethnic groups in Mali. The basic everyday dress of cotton tunics, knee-length trousers, and caps for men, and wrappers and shawls for women remained popular in rural communities in south-central Mali well into the mid-twentieth century. Ethnic variations do exist but are m

Morocco

Cynthia J. Becker

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Africa 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Morocco has long been a crossroads between Europe, the Middle East, and sub-Saharan Africa, and dress reflects the richness of its history as well as its geographic and cultural diversity. Forty to sixty percent of the Moroccan population is Berber, and many Berbers have retained their indigenous language. After the Phoenicians and then the Romans settled in Morocco and encountered the Berbers, Arabs moved into Morocco in the seventh century, founding the city of Fes and gradually converting the

The Shawl and the Head Cover

Rosemary Crill

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. South Asia and Southeast Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

A draped, uncut length of cloth has been the basis of Indian male and female dress since the earliest times. This draped cloth has taken many forms, with the turban, sari, and dhoti having been the major components of dress across India for centuries. The focus on wrapped, untailored lengths of cloth altered with the arrival of the Kushans in the second century b.c.e. and in the wake of closer contacts with Central Asia through migrations and trade. Later, under the influence of Muslim culture fr

Ainu

Chisato O. Dubreuil

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The Ainu, the indigenous people of Japan, live throughout Japan, but most are concentrated on the northernmost island of Hokkaido (formally known as Ezo). The definition of the word Ainu is “the people” or “humans.” Their homeland, Ainu-mosir (the Land of Humans), originally included southern Sakhalin, the lower Amur River region, the southern tip of the Kamchatka Peninsula, the Kurile Islands, Hokkaido, and at least the Tohoku region of Japan’s main island, Honshū. While there are no known full-

Dress from the Gulf States: Bahrain, Kuwait, Qatar, United Arab Emirates

Fadwa El Guindi and Wesam al-Othman

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The Khalij (Arab Gulf) dress that is characteristic of Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, and the Emirates shares the core code underlying dress and some aspects of form with Arab-Islamic dress in general. In the contemporary Arab Gulf region the tendency to mark gender by dress is quite dramatic. In Qatar, for example, women (young and old) dress in black and men (young and old) in white. Both sexes wear long clothing with long sleeves and wear head covers. But these clothing items have different referents

Khil’a: Clothing to Honor a Person or Situation

Stewart Gordon

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Khil’a was a ceremony that included elite and expensive textiles made into particular garments. These garments were used to define a relationship of honorable service. At its simplest, a king or his representative bestowed on another person, usually of lower rank, an outer cloak, shirt, sash, and pants, plus often a turban and shoes. In a robing room adjacent to the court, the recipient donned the whole outfit, reemerged to the acclaim of the assembled nobles, and—if not so before—was deemed “sui

Bridal Dress in Korea

Na Young Hong

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Traditional Korean lifestyles began changing with the opening of Korea to the outside world in the late nineteenth century. The first Western wedding in Korea took place in 1890; it took nearly seventy years for most Koreans to accept this style. Traditional ceremonies began giving way to Western-style weddings with the inflow of Western culture into Korea since the mid-1950s. Pyebaek, part of the traditional ceremony in which brides kowtow to the grooms’ intimate elders, remained until the early

The Kaftan and Its Origins

Charlotte Jirousek

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The term kaftan usually refers to a long, unfitted coat of Turkic, Persian, or Central Asian origin. Many variations on front-opening coats originated with Central Asian horse-riding nomads. These nomads were both Uro-Altaic and Indo-European in origin. The coats were worn in layers over loose trousers that protected the legs from chafing. Layered garments were also useful in a very changeable climate. The earliest examples of the wearing of kaftan-like coats are to be found in graves of early no

Palestinian Women’s Dress

Widad Kawar and Sibba Einarsdóttir

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Palestine had a wide variety of traditional dress styles. Not only did every area have a different style, but often every village had its own distinctive dress, and sometimes the various large families living in one village would have a range of different styles. Occasionally, there were differences within the same family as women from different villages entered the family as wives and each brought her own embroidery traditions and clothing styles with her. All of this variety makes defining Pale

Jordanian Women’s Dress

Widad Kawar and Sibba Einarsdóttir

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Jordan, officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, lies in the southern part of the Syrian Desert on the Gulf of Aqaba. It shares borders with Syria, Iraq, Israel, the West Bank, and Saudi Arabia. Much of the country is desert; however, in the northwest, there is a fertile agricultural region. Jordan has a long history that can be traced back to the Sumerian period in the second millennium b.c.e. and earlier. During its long and rich history, Jordan has been part of the Babylonian, Persian, Egyp

Kimono

Alan Kennedy

Source: The Berg Companion to Fashion 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The kosode takes its name from the adjective ko, meaning “small,” and sode, for “sleeve.” In that a kosode/kimono sleeve has the appearance of a large pouch, it is difficult to consider the kosode sleeve as being small. In fact, what is small relative to the overall sleeve size is the opening through which the hand passes. The kosode sleeve opening is so-named in contrast to the ōsode sleeve, which is entirely open and unsewn.

The Abayeh in Qatar

Christina Lindholm

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The abayeh is a contemporary long cloaklike garment worn by most Qatari women outside the home. The wearing of the abayeh and the shayla, the head covering, is not legally enforced, and both garments can be modified and decorated by the individual. While many own and wear Western dress at home, abayehs are willingly retained as a sign of respect for the woman’s culture, heritage, family honor, and gendered place in society. Most Qatari females adopt the abayeh and shayla at the onset of puberty.

Twenty-First-Century Qatari Abayeh Fashions

Christina Lindholm

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Women in Qatar, like many other conservative Muslim Middle Eastern countries, dress in a black robe, the abayeh, and long headscarf, the shaylah. They are adhering to the Qur’anic directive to dress modestly and interpret this as wearing all-covering robes and concealing their hair. There is little agreement on why the women “cover.” Some scholars state that it provides privacy and protection from the eyes of male strangers. Others believe that by wearing plain, anonymous robes, women protect men

Kimono

Terry Satsuki Milhaupt

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The word kimono is recognized globally as a Japanese term, typically defined as a floor-length robe, wrapped left over right around the body and worn by both men and women. Assembled from seven pieces that are cut from a single bolt of cloth—two body panels, two sleeves, two overlaps, and a collar—the kimono is simply constructed and less fitted to the body than Western attire. The precise meaning of kimono differs across temporal and cultural borders.

The Significance of Numbers in Dress

Phyllis Bell Miller

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Global Perspectives 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Throughout history and across various cultures, numbers have played various roles in dress. They may identify a person’s marital status, social standing, economic situation, age, gender, religion, political orientation, and other factors. Numbers related to dress may also protect an individual from evil forces or attract benevolent spirits. In addition, numbers have been used as a tool in textile design since ancient times, allowing the observer to make sense of patterns and motifs. Thus, numbers

Muslim Dress and the Head-Scarf Debate

Annelies Moors

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Debates about the presence of students wearing head scarves in public schools in West Europe started in the late 1980s; about a decade later, the employment of women wearing head scarves also became the focus of attention. These debates need to be seen within a context in which a new generation of Muslims (often second-generation migrants) started to enter the educational system and then the labor market. As new Muslim citizens, these young men and women have increasingly become socially and poli

Subcultural Dress

David Muggleton and Dunja Brill

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

A subculture can be defined as a group with particular shared cultural features that distinguish it clearly from other subcultures and both the specific milieu (parent culture) and wider society (dominant culture) from which it emerges. The definition of culture on which this notion of a subculture is based is borrowed from anthropology and is taken to mean a whole way of life of a society or particular section thereof, depending on the level of analysis. A subculture can therefore be seen as a d

Overview of Tibet

Valrae Reynolds

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Tibetans live in the highest populated region on Earth, at altitudes of four thousand to fifteen thousand feet (twelve hundred to forty-five hundred meters), isolated from their neighbors to the west, south, and east by even higher mountain ranges and from the north by forbidding deserts. To live successfully in this extreme environment, Tibetans have developed distinctive garments. Nevertheless, components of Tibetan dress reflect the clothing traditions of the diverse civilizations of Eurasia.

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