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Draping Principles and Skills

Connie Amaden-Crawford

Source: The Art of Fashion Draping, 5th Edition, 2018, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

Draping principles and skillsDraping is a technique in which DesignDesignersdesigners work with fabric, using a dress form or live model, draping and pinning the pieces together to develop the desired style. Draping is the oldest means of creating clothing. It is an art form in fabric. The techniques by which a designer works to develop a line may vary. Many designers prefer to use draping methods to create their original designs. This is because working with actual materials gives a designer gre

Torso/Blouse Sloper and Basic Shift Silhouettes

Connie Amaden-Crawford

Source: The Art of Fashion Draping, 5th Edition, 2018, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

Torso/blouse sloperThe torso/blouse sloper and basic shift silhouettes have a bust-fitting dart and no waistline seam. The waist area can be slightly fitted with one or two fisheye darts, belted, or drawn in with elastic. The side seams hang slightly away from the body and are parallel to center front. By using the torso/blouse sloper, it can be lengthened to make a shift design. Many styles of pockets, plackets, yokes, necklines, collars, and/or sleeves can be used to create the individual style

Introduction

Fiona Anderson

Source: Tweed, 2018, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

Exploring contemporary fashion imagery shows that the mythical or stereotypical connotations of tweeds form a useful starting point for a deeper investigation into their history. For example, an advertisementsadvertisement in Vogue magazinesVogue for Lauren, RalphRalph Lauren’s autumn/winter 2012 womenswear collection featured outfits that were strongly influenced by British country house partiescountry clothing and 1920s fashion, including fitted jackets and jodhpurs in tweed, worn with “mannish

Tweed: Terms, Descriptions, and Characteristics

Fiona Anderson

Source: Tweed, 2018, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

The word tweed began to be used to denote woolen cloths from Scotland in the twill weave from the 1830s.The Satirist, September 2, 1838, front cover. Before that decade, its only form was the proper noun, Tweed, which is the name of a river that flows through the Scottish Borders region. That river became well known throughout Britain and to an extent, Europe, in the early nineteenth century because of its close associations with the famous writer, Sir Walter Scott, who lived near it.D.Watson, “T

Origins and Early Development of Tweed to 1850

Fiona Anderson

Source: Tweed, 2018, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

Gulvin, CliffordGulvin argues that improvements made in the Scottish woolen industry between 1770 and the late 1820s helped to lay the foundations for the later successful development of tweed production. Prior to the 1770s, the production of woolens in Scotland was considerably less advanced than that of its neighbor England in terms of its economic success and the quality of its cloths. By the late eighteenth century, England had long been renowned for producing fine broadclothsbroadcloths, whi

Tweed, Male Fashion, and Modern Masculinities, 1851–1918

Fiona Anderson

Source: Tweed, 2018, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

Tweed trouserstrousers in “shepherd’s check” patternshepherd’s checks and other fancy woolensfancy patterns remained popular in Britain and Europe in the 1850s and 1860s.JamesLocke, “A Few Facts on the Tweed Trade,” The Border Advertiser, September 18, 1863, p. 3; CliffordGulvin, The Tweedmakers: A History of the Scottish Fancy Woollen Industry 1600–1914 (Newton Abbot: David & Charles, 1973), p. 80; FaridChenoune, A History of Men’s Fashion (Paris: Flammarion, 1993), pp. 84–5. The Juror’s Report

Tweed, Femininity, and Fashion, 1851–1918

Fiona Anderson

Source: Tweed, 2018, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

Prior to the early 1850s, Scottish woolen manufacturers predominantly catered to the ladies’ trade through the weaving of shawls and fine, merino dress fabrics that were known as ““cloakings”cloakings,” as noted in Chapter 3. In 1863, Locke, JamesJames Locke described recent changes in the Scottish woolen industryScottish woolen industry, by stating: The Scotch tweed trade then may be divided into three distinct sections- viz. tweeds, shawlsshawls, and cloakings. The last of these came to their c

Suits You: Men and Tweed, 1919–1952

Fiona Anderson

Source: Tweed, 2018, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

Following the First World War, as Jenkins, DavidJenkins clarifies, there was an immediate boom in the wool textiles trade, which for a brief period generated high profits and labor demand.DavidJenkins, “Wool Textiles in the Twentieth Century,” in DavidJenkins, The Cambridge History of Western Textiles, II (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003), p. 995. In the company history of Crombie, J. & J. (company)J. & J. Crombie of Aberdeen these developments are described as follows: there was a tr

Sportswear Chic: Tweed in Womenswear, 1919–1952

Fiona Anderson

Source: Tweed, 2018, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

Detailed statistics about the proportion of British tweeds, which were consumed by women, or made specifically for the female market between 1919 and 1952 are not available. However, estimates from key Scottish woolen industry bodies and a government study give a useful indication about the picture within Scotland up to 1946. The visit of the Scottish Woollen Trade Mark Association (SWTA)Scottish Woollen Trade Mark Association to the USA and Canada toward the end of 1921 prompted an article in Ga

Couture to Pop and Nostalgic Fashion, 1953–1980

Fiona Anderson

Source: Tweed, 2018, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

Between the early 1950s and the late 1970s, the production of woolen cloths in Britain was still primarily concentrated in Yorkshire wool textiles industryYorkshire, Scotland and the West of England woolen industryWest of England.G. F.Rainnie, The Woollen and Worsted Industry: An Economic Analysis (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1965), pp. 29–31. Yorkshire continued to suitsfor menform by far the largest manufacturing region and Brearley, AlanBrearley and Iredale, John A.Iredale concluded in 1977 that

Tradition and Innovation, 1981–2014

Fiona Anderson

Source: Tweed, 2018, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

Hardill, IreneHardill’s study shows that woolen manufacturing in Yorkshire wool textiles industryYorkshire, which was still by far the largest center of that industry in the UK had suffered major contraction by 1981.IreneHardill, The Regional Implications of Restructuring (Aldershot: Gower Publishing Company Limited, 1987), pp. 193–4. Research for this book has identified that by 2014, the few firms trading from Yorkshire that made tweeds and other woolen cloths, included Abraham Moon & SonsAbrah

Consumer safety and product labeling guidance

Deanna Clark-Esposito

Source: A Practical Guide to Fashion Law and Compliance, 2018, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter

The laws governing mandatory label disclosures have three broad and collective labellinggoalsgoals:

Home Fashions

Elaine Stone and Sheryl A. Farnan

Source: The Dynamics of Fashion, 5th Edition, 2018, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

The types of furnishings and household accessories in contemporary American homes are based primarily on models and ideas that the early European immigrants brought with them. Most of our beds and eating utensils, for example, are Western. But many of the fabrics and other material, the decorative patterns, and the objects themselves originated in the East and came to America through rather than from Europe. The Crusaders imported the rugs that covered the floors in medieval European castles, and

The Textile Cycle: From Fiber to Fashion

Deborah E. Young

Source: Swatch Reference Guide for Fashion Fabrics, 4th Edition, 2018, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

The text begins with the smallest part of a textile—fiber—and follows the textile cycle through to the final step, finishing. With increasing demand for more versatile and functional fabrics, finishing and care have become major areas of interest within the textile world, unlimited in their commercial potential. For example, one segment of the textile industry is devoted to fibers and finishing processes that resist stains. In their search for more stain-resistant fabrics, researchers have develo

Fiber Classification: Manufactured Fibers

Deborah E. Young

Source: Swatch Reference Guide for Fashion Fabrics, 4th Edition, 2018, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

Manufactured cellulose fibers are made from plant material that is processed with chemicals. This processing causes a permanent change in the structure of the fiber. For this reason, although the fibers are made from natural ingredients, they are classified as manufactured fibers. For a list of properties appropriate to all manufactured cellulose fibers, see Table 2.2, Properties Common to All Cellulose Fibers (page 16), and Table 3.1, Properties of Individual Manufactured Fibers (pages 24–25).

Fiber Classification: Synthetic Fibers

Deborah E. Young

Source: Swatch Reference Guide for Fashion Fabrics, 4th Edition, 2018, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

By 1939, the process of manufacturing fibers extended to using resources such as petroleum products, petrochemicals, natural gas, and coal. The raw materials undergo complex processes necessary to spin the materials into fiber. DuPont created the first purely chemical fiber, called fiber 66. Today this fiber is called nylon.

Yarn Classification

Deborah E. Young

Source: Swatch Reference Guide for Fashion Fabrics, 4th Edition, 2018, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

A yarn is a group of fibers twisted together to form a continuous strand. Yarns can be filament, spun, or novelty (see Figure 5.1).

Plain Weaves

Deborah E. Young

Source: Swatch Reference Guide for Fashion Fabrics, 4th Edition, 2018, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

The difference between fiber and fabric is one of the most fundamental concepts in textiles and generally one of the most misunderstood. Fibers are the basic building materials. Fabrics are the final result of weaving, knitting, or minor fabrications. Identifying the fiber content is important, but it does not provide the complete picture for predicting performance. Think of describing a house by labeling it as wood. While the house may be built primarily of wood, that description does not create

Plain-Weave Variations: Basket and Rib Weaves

Deborah E. Young

Source: Swatch Reference Guide for Fashion Fabrics, 4th Edition, 2018, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

Like plain weaves, basket-weave construction is perfectly balanced, but two or more yarns act together as one to create the structure. Basket weaves are often represented by multiples in the yarn, such as two to two, three to three, four to four, and so on. See Figure 7.1 for an example of a 2:2 basket weave.

Twill Weaves

Deborah E. Young

Source: Swatch Reference Guide for Fashion Fabrics, 4th Edition, 2018, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

The floats (skipped interlacings that create diagonal wales) found in a twill have the following impact on fabric:

Satin Weaves

Deborah E. Young

Source: Swatch Reference Guide for Fashion Fabrics, 4th Edition, 2018, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

The following list of characteristics applies to satin weaves:

Complex Weaves

Deborah E. Young

Source: Swatch Reference Guide for Fashion Fabrics, 4th Edition, 2018, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

Crepe is a general term for a group of fabrics that are made using one of several methods of construction. This is a reclassification of fabrics previously analyzed. The overview that follows reveals the differences in construction, while maintaining performance expectations. Structure is not a constant in this category.

Pile Weaves

Deborah E. Young

Source: Swatch Reference Guide for Fashion Fabrics, 4th Edition, 2018, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

Pile weaves are made with three sets of yarns: a vertical set (warp), horizontal threads (weft), and a set of yarns making perpendicular loops on the surface of the other two, creating a three-dimensional structure. The warp and weft interlace and form a tightly woven ground weave. With the exception of terry cloth, the perpendicular loops of these fabrics are later sheared and brushed in the finishing process.

Knit Fabrics

Deborah E. Young

Source: Swatch Reference Guide for Fashion Fabrics, 4th Edition, 2018, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

Knitting is the second major method of constructing a textile. Weaving was invented thousands of years before knitting; knits are relative newcomers. As such, knitting structures borrow a lot of their terms and surfaces from woven fabrics. Notice that some knit fabrics even share the same or similar names as woven fabrics, such as piqués, ribs, and jacquards. It can be quite confusing. In the past decade, the knit market has grown exponentially, taking on a much larger share of the textile market

Specialty Weft Knits

Deborah E. Young

Source: Swatch Reference Guide for Fashion Fabrics, 4th Edition, 2018, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

Interlock (Figure 13.1) is both the simplest of the double knits (made on a double needle bed) and is also a variation of a 1×1 rib knit. Interlock is so closely related to the rib knit that it is often difficult to identify the difference between the two. Effectively, interlock is two jerseys made back-to-back, with wales on both the face and back. For this reason, it is sometimes called a double jersey. This term is somewhat problematic because it does not look like or perform like a jersey. Es

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