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Tweed: Terms, Descriptions, and Characteristics

Fiona Anderson

Source: Tweed, 2018, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

The word tweed began to be used to denote woolen cloths from Scotland in the twill weave from the 1830s.The Satirist, September 2, 1838, front cover. Before that decade, its only form was the proper noun, Tweed, which is the name of a river that flows through the Scottish Borders region. That river became well known throughout Britain and to an extent, Europe, in the early nineteenth century because of its close associations with the famous writer, Sir Walter Scott, who lived near it.D.Watson, “T

Textiles, trims, findings, and materials

Chelsea Rousso and Nancy Kaplan Ostroff

Source: Fashion Forward. A Guide to Fashion Forecasting, 2nd Edition, 2018, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

trims forecastingtextiles forecastingmaterials forecastingfindings forecastingTextiles, trims, findings, and materials forecasting is a process of collecting, editing, interpreting, and analyzing information to be able to predict the textiles, materials, trims, and findings that will be popular in upcoming seasons. As in theme and color, forecasters research and use their creativity, instinct, and experience to sense tactile shifts. Consumers are greatly influenced by the feel of textilestextiles

The Textile Cycle: From Fiber to Fashion

Deborah E. Young

Source: Swatch Reference Guide for Fashion Fabrics, 4th Edition, 2018, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

The text begins with the smallest part of a textile—fiber—and follows the textile cycle through to the final step, finishing. With increasing demand for more versatile and functional fabrics, finishing and care have become major areas of interest within the textile world, unlimited in their commercial potential. For example, one segment of the textile industry is devoted to fibers and finishing processes that resist stains. In their search for more stain-resistant fabrics, researchers have develo

Yarn Classification

Deborah E. Young

Source: Swatch Reference Guide for Fashion Fabrics, 4th Edition, 2018, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

A yarn is a group of fibers twisted together to form a continuous strand. Yarns can be filament, spun, or novelty (see Figure 5.1).

Plain Weaves

Deborah E. Young

Source: Swatch Reference Guide for Fashion Fabrics, 4th Edition, 2018, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

The difference between fiber and fabric is one of the most fundamental concepts in textiles and generally one of the most misunderstood. Fibers are the basic building materials. Fabrics are the final result of weaving, knitting, or minor fabrications. Identifying the fiber content is important, but it does not provide the complete picture for predicting performance. Think of describing a house by labeling it as wood. While the house may be built primarily of wood, that description does not create

Plain-Weave Variations: Basket and Rib Weaves

Deborah E. Young

Source: Swatch Reference Guide for Fashion Fabrics, 4th Edition, 2018, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

Like plain weaves, basket-weave construction is perfectly balanced, but two or more yarns act together as one to create the structure. Basket weaves are often represented by multiples in the yarn, such as two to two, three to three, four to four, and so on. See Figure 7.1 for an example of a 2:2 basket weave.

Twill Weaves

Deborah E. Young

Source: Swatch Reference Guide for Fashion Fabrics, 4th Edition, 2018, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

The floats (skipped interlacings that create diagonal wales) found in a twill have the following impact on fabric:

Satin Weaves

Deborah E. Young

Source: Swatch Reference Guide for Fashion Fabrics, 4th Edition, 2018, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

The following list of characteristics applies to satin weaves:

Complex Weaves

Deborah E. Young

Source: Swatch Reference Guide for Fashion Fabrics, 4th Edition, 2018, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

Crepe is a general term for a group of fabrics that are made using one of several methods of construction. This is a reclassification of fabrics previously analyzed. The overview that follows reveals the differences in construction, while maintaining performance expectations. Structure is not a constant in this category.

Pile Weaves

Deborah E. Young

Source: Swatch Reference Guide for Fashion Fabrics, 4th Edition, 2018, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

Pile weaves are made with three sets of yarns: a vertical set (warp), horizontal threads (weft), and a set of yarns making perpendicular loops on the surface of the other two, creating a three-dimensional structure. The warp and weft interlace and form a tightly woven ground weave. With the exception of terry cloth, the perpendicular loops of these fabrics are later sheared and brushed in the finishing process.

Knit Fabrics

Deborah E. Young

Source: Swatch Reference Guide for Fashion Fabrics, 4th Edition, 2018, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

Knitting is the second major method of constructing a textile. Weaving was invented thousands of years before knitting; knits are relative newcomers. As such, knitting structures borrow a lot of their terms and surfaces from woven fabrics. Notice that some knit fabrics even share the same or similar names as woven fabrics, such as piqués, ribs, and jacquards. It can be quite confusing. In the past decade, the knit market has grown exponentially, taking on a much larger share of the textile market

Specialty Weft Knits

Deborah E. Young

Source: Swatch Reference Guide for Fashion Fabrics, 4th Edition, 2018, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

Interlock (Figure 13.1) is both the simplest of the double knits (made on a double needle bed) and is also a variation of a 1×1 rib knit. Interlock is so closely related to the rib knit that it is often difficult to identify the difference between the two. Effectively, interlock is two jerseys made back-to-back, with wales on both the face and back. For this reason, it is sometimes called a double jersey. This term is somewhat problematic because it does not look like or perform like a jersey. Es

Minor Fabrications

Deborah E. Young

Source: Swatch Reference Guide for Fashion Fabrics, 4th Edition, 2018, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

The fabrics in this category are made without yarn. Without yarns, there is no organized structure or thread count. Because yarn construction is labor intensive, fabrics made without yarns offer significant cost savings over those made with yarns. Additionally, nonwoven fabrics are often softer and more elastic than their woven or even knitted counterparts. The fibers are blown onto a collection surface and held together by entanglement (or needlepunching), heat fusion (if thermoplastic), or adhe

Quick Reference Guide Tables

Deborah E. Young

Source: Swatch Reference Guide for Fashion Fabrics, 4th Edition, 2018, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter

Swatch Boards

Deborah E. Young

Source: Swatch Reference Guide for Fashion Fabrics, 4th Edition, 2018, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter

Yarn Basics

Lisa Donofrio-Ferrezza and Marilyn Hefferen

Source: Designing a Knitwear Collection. From Inspiration to Finished Garments, 2nd Edition, 2017, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

Yarns are the basic materials of the knitting process. Yarns are made from fibers, which are either staple or filament. Staple fibers are naturally short or cut filament fibers that are spun together to create yarn. Filament fibers are continuous in length. Many types of yarns are available, from natural in raw or regenerated form to manufactured synthetics to blends, making the assortment tremendous. Further improvements in technology and in the manufacturing and processing of fibers have made y

Garment Support and Structure

Anette Fischer and Kiran Gobin

Source: Construction for Fashion Design, 2nd Edition, 2017, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter

Throughout history, dressmakers and tailors have been working hard to achieve a certain body shape in fashion. Since humans first began to cover their bodies, supportive and structured garments have been used and modified. At first, these garments would have been purely for shelter and protection. As time went on, however, clothing began to be associated with social and/or economic status and the interest in structured garments that would accentuate certain parts of the body grew.

Surface-Specific Techniques

Anette Fischer and Kiran Gobin

Source: Construction for Fashion Design, 2nd Edition, 2017, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter

Felted woven fabrics are shrunk and compressed with heat, moisture and friction to produce a dense appearance. Some of the better-known felted fabrics are loden, melton or fleece. The edges of a felted fabric do not fray, so seams can be left unfinished. It is most common to use a plain stitched seam with top-stitching or a welt seam for light- to medium-weight felted fabric. But there are many more techniques to choose from, such as the following:

Fabrication

Sandra Keiser, Deborah Vandermar and Myrna B. Garner

Source: Beyond Design. The Synergy of Apparel Product Development, 4th Edition, 2017, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

“Every time that I wanted to give up, if I saw an interesting textile, print, whatever, suddenly I would see a collection.”

Fabrics and techniques

Richard Sorger and Jenny Udale

Source: The Fundamentals of Fashion Design, 3rd Edition, 2017, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter

It is of fundamental importance for every designer to understand the unique properties and qualities of fabrics. Choosing the right fabric for a garment is crucial to its success.

Project Five—Photoshop: Stripes and Weaves

Robert Hume

Source: Fashion and Textile Design with Photoshop and Illustrator. Professional Creative Practice, 2016, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter

In this project you will:

Yarns (Swatches 16-27)

Ingrid Johnson, Ajoy K. Sarkar and Allen C. Cohen

Source: J. J.Pizzuto’s Fabric Science. Swatch Kit, 11th Edition, 2016, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

Woven Fabrics (Swatches 28–48)

Ingrid Johnson, Ajoy K. Sarkar and Allen C. Cohen

Source: J. J.Pizzuto’s Fabric Science. Swatch Kit, 11th Edition, 2016, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

Other Types of Textiles (Swatches 70–75)

Ingrid Johnson, Ajoy K. Sarkar and Allen C. Cohen

Source: J. J.Pizzuto’s Fabric Science. Swatch Kit, 11th Edition, 2016, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

Fabric Science

Ingrid Johnson, Ajoy K. Sarkar and Allen C. Cohen

Source: J. J.Pizzuto’s Fabric Science. Swatch Kit, 11th Edition, 2016, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter

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