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Manolo Blahnik

Rio Ali

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Designer Biography

Chanel Haute Couture, Karl Lagerfeld, Fall/Winter 1985

Michelle Honig

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Article

This collection continued the development of Lagerfeld’s Chanel. Beaded looks were made to look like intricate tapestries and the hems of skirts were either floor-length or well above the knee, a deviation from Chanel’s strict rule of creating skirts 2 in. (5 cm) below the knee, no matter the fashion. The final bridal look was a white satin miniskirt suit. Two-tone, matronly pumps were a Chanel signature; the black stilettos in the collection underscored the younger, sexier direction of the house

Yoruba in Nigeria and Diaspora

Rowland Abiodun

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Africa 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The Yoruba people number well over thirty million from about sixteen ancient kingdoms. They spread all over southwestern Nigeria and extend well into the neighboring countries of Benin and Togo. The Yoruba have been urbanized since the first millennium c.e. and are well known for their fine artistic achievements, especially the naturalistic life-size bronze heads and terra-cotta sculptures of Ile-Ife. In addition to being among the most accomplished carvers in wood and ivory in Africa, the Yoruba

Togo

Agbenyega Adedze

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Africa 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Although dress in Togo is similar to that of its neighbors in West Africa, it has distinctive features that make it unique in the region. It is quite common for citizens of neighboring countries like Benin, Burkina Faso, and Ghana to identify a Togolese national by his or her clothes even though similar styles of dress might be present in these countries. Like most regions of the world, environment affects clothing choices, especially evident in practices distinguishing the north and the south of

Tsonga Dress and Fashion

Rayda Becker

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Africa 2010

Encyclopedia entry

All Tsonga in South Africa originate from Mozambique. A small group, they have a complex history involving various migrations and names; Tsonga now primarily denotes a language. In the early 1900s Tsonga women wore skirts made of imported cotton, and beaded jewelry. Later the skirts became shorter and fuller and are now made of wool. The main changes over the last century involve the upper body, the beaded necklaces worn in the 1930s giving way to blouses and T-shirts, worn with the minceka, two

Jewelry of Malaysia

Mohammed Kassim Bin Haji Ali

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. South Asia and Southeast Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Beads were one of the earliest forms of manufactured body ornaments worn by indigenous groups in Malaysia. Some beads found in Borneo can be dated to the Metal Age. Earlier glass and stone beads that came from as far away as Egypt and Mesopotamia through bartering have become very valuable and are much sought after in the early twenty-first century; in earlier times they were sometimes used as currency. The ancient tradition remains strong, and status and wealth are measured according to the numb

Ethnic Groups of Arunachal Pradesh, Northeast India

Sucheta Sen Chaudhuri and Sarit Kumar Chaudhuri

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. South Asia and Southeast Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Arunachal Pradesh, “land of the dawn-lit mountains,” is India’s easternmost state. It shares a border with Assam to the south and Nagaland to the southeast; Bhutan lies to the west, Myanmar to the east, and Tibet to the north. Briefly designated as the North East Frontier Agency (1954–1972), this area has remained, culturally and geographically, a meeting point of civilizations: Chinese, Central Asian, Southeast Asian, and Indian.

Beaded and Embroidered Accessories of the Peranakan Chinese

Hwei-Fe’n Cheah

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. South Asia and Southeast Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The Peranakan Chinese in insular Southeast Asia trace their ancestry to Chinese migrants who settled in the Indonesian archipelago and Malay peninsula beginning around the seventeenth century. Peranakan Chinese culture is a mix of Chinese and local elements. As Dutch and British colonial rules were reinforced in the Netherlands Indies and Malay Peninsula, European ideas significantly influenced Peranakan Chinese society in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. The geographically dispersed

The Kingdom of Benin

Kathy Curnow

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Africa 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The Kingdom of Benin, a historically important traditional state, is located in southern Nigeria just north of the Niger River Delta. For centuries, its Edo people have looked to Benin City as their cultural center. The seat of a hereditary kingship, it is also a university town and state capital. The oba, its semidivine monarch, still exerts considerable influence even though the modern nation has usurped most of his political privileges. About two hundred chiefs assist him and form the aristocr

Afghan Jewelry

M. Catherine Daly

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Jewelry has long played an important role in Afghan dress. It has a fascinating history that dates back thousands of years and follows the ancient trading routes that wove through Afghanistan. What is considered to be Afghan ethnic or indigenous jewelry at the beginning of the twenty-first century is frequently referred to as nomadic jewelry. As in the case of Afghan dress, Afghan jewelry research is fraught with challenges, since many personally owned pieces were sold during the Soviet occupatio

South Africa Overview

Patricia Davison

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Africa 2010

Encyclopedia entry

South Africa offers a rich field for exploring the symbolic language of dress in the varied contexts of everyday life. It is a country of many cultural layers, with eleven official languages and a relatively recent history of racial segregation and imposed ethnically based “homelands.” After 1994, however, when South Africa became a multiparty democracy, the new nation aspired to be united in its diversity, even though the inequalities of the past remained embedded in many social institutions and

Zimbabwe

William J. Dewey

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Africa 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The Shona peoples represent the majority of Zimbabwe’s population, followed by the Ndebele and the Tonga; each has its dress traditions. Ancient rock paintings left by the very early San peoples depict male hunters with bows and arrows, the women wearing front and back animal-skin aprons. The Bantu speakers migrating to the region about two thousand years ago left figurines, apparently showing body scarring, but no other figurative evidence of early dress or adornment remains. Excavations have yi

The Jewelry Industry

Carol Anne Dickson

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada 2010

Encyclopedia entry

From early times, men and women have sought to adorn themselves. The desire to adorn the body answered several needs: communication of identity, including status and kinship, as well as symbols of protection and spiritual beliefs. The desire to express beliefs, status, and affiliations grew as the number of family members grew and the number of families who formed groups expanded. It is certain that jewelry antedates clothing. Whether it was worn for artistic display or utility, we do not know fo

Pedi, Ndebele, and Ntwane Dress and Beadwork

Sandra Klopper

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Africa 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The Pedi, Ndebele, and Ntwane communities developed close links during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries in what is now South Africa’s Mpumalanga province. Some of their beadwork and rituals are almost identical. Today there are two Ndebele groups, the Manala and Ndzundza. Influenced by missionaries, the former gradually lost touch with traditional dress, while the Ndzundza, forcibly indentured to white farmers in the 1880s, strove for cultural cohesion, developing beadwork associated with i

Beads and Beadwork

Sandra Klopper

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Africa 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Although today most African communities purchase locally manufactured and imported glass beads for daily and ritual use, indigenous communities originally relied on locally available materials such as seeds and ostrich eggshells or marine shells to adorn themselves and their leather garments. Recent discoveries in Morocco indicate that deliberately perforated Nassarius marine shells, some still smeared with red ochre, were manufactured eighty-two thousand years ago. Because some of these marine s

Tanzania

Sandra Klopper and Rehema Nchimbi

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Africa 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Tanzania, situated in East Africa and bordering eight countries, contains more than 120 ethnic groups, and many nationalities have played significant roles in its history. Modern Tanzanian dress and decoration reflect its history as a hub for international trade. Imported cloth from Arab traders was widely worn from the nineteenth century onward. Further influences were nineteenth-century Christian missionaries, who imposed European dress codes, and severe poaching laws introduced by the postcolo

Beads: Prehistory to Early Twenty-First Century

Robert K. Liu

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Global Perspectives 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Bead types are varied, and their quantities exist in the billions, especially with regard to glass seed beads; because of this, they have often been treated as the small change of history. Rarely intrinsically valuable, but often previously considered luxuries, and difficult to study due to their diminutive sizes, beads do not yield information unless the researcher has a good understanding of archaeological, anthropological, ethnographic, or other scientific issues. Almost every substance has be

Mauritania and Western Sahara

Hudita Nura Mustafa

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Africa 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Mauritania and Western Sahara/Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic occupy a large region in northwest Africa on the edge of the Sahara Desert, bordering the Atlantic Ocean and the Sahel. For centuries, trade, migration, slavery, and intermarriage have created economic and cultural exchange across this desert region, bridging Arab and black Africa and their traditions of dress. Across the Senegal River, the famed Senegalese city of St. Louis long served as a host for Mauritanian merchants and migrants

Ethnic Dress and Adornment of the Dayaks of Sabah, Sarawak, and Kalimantan

Edric Ong

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. South Asia and Southeast Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Colonizers used the term Dayak for non-Islamic indigenous peoples of Borneo, divided into Sarawak and Sabah, the two East Malaysian states, and Kalimantan in Indonesia and Brunei. It is less used now, as ethnic groups wish to be identified by their own names. The oral history of the indigenous peoples of Sarawak, Sabah, and Kalimantan is rich in myths closely related to textiles, dress, and ornaments. The Iban, comprising 30 percent of the state’s population, have one of the richest textile tradi

Fang of Equatorial Guinea and Gabon

Louis P. Perrois

Translated by Francine Farr

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Africa 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The Fang of equatorial Africa dazzled all who crossed their path of east-to-west migration toward the Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Guinea that ended in the early twentieth century. In 1843, U.S. pastor John Wilson noted, as quoted inMerlet’sLe pays des trois estuaires, 1471–1900, that they were “naked except for a bark loincloth …. Their hair hangs in braids. They carry knives, spears, and many iron objects they make themselves.” In 1847, French naval lieutenant Méquet, plying the Como River on the

Angola

Manuel Jordán Pérez

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Africa 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Angola is situated on the Atlantic Ocean and is bordered by the Democratic Republic of Congo, Zambia, and Namibia. Most of the original Khosian speakers were displaced by migrations of Bantu in ancient times. Some Khosians remain in Southern Angola, living as hunter-gatherers or working for Bantu pastoralists. Their dress draws on available resources such as ostrich eggshell beads and goatskins, with varied styles reflecting the wearers’ affiliations. A former Portuguese colony, Angola has suffer

Ghana

Doran H. Ross

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Africa 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Modern Ghana (to be distinguished from the medieval kingdom of Ghana in Mali) is centered on the Atlantic coast of West Africa and is firmly within the tropics with its shoreline about five degrees north of the equator. The country is bordered by Togo on the east, Burkina Faso on the north, and Côte d’Ivoire on the west, and, like all countries in Africa, it shares a history of dress with its neighbors. The contemporary peoples of Ghana may be conveniently divided between the largely Muslim north

Zambia

Ruth Kerkham Simbao

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Africa 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Zambia (previously Northern Rhodesia) has a complex history of dress that reflects past migrations, vibrant interactions with international peoples, and a creative desire to register style and social status. The significance of dress has been incorporated into language, and a Bemba person might greet a female friend by saying, “Mwafwalukeni!” which on one level means “Hello” but at the same time acknowledges that the friend is wearing a new dress.

Shared and Unique Traditions and Practices

Joyce M. Szabo

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Whether for everyday wear or special occasions, clothing throughout native North America reflects many important aspects of the lives of the people who made and wore these garments and body adornments in the past. Contemporary clothing incorporates the same styles found throughout North America and the Westernized world in general, but ceremonial attire still differs markedly. Clothing sends clear messages about those people who wear it; contemporary clothing styles attest to the survival of nati

Rwanda and Burundi

Michele D. Wagner

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Africa 2010

Encyclopedia entry

External appearance has played an important role in the modern history of Rwanda and Burundi, and within this history, by a twist of fate, fashion has been surprisingly well recorded for more than a century. This record of clothing, ornaments, charms, and hairstyles shows that, although the material basis of dress has changed a great deal—especially with the shift away from bark cloth and animal skins—certain forms, such as the togalike umwitero, have persisted over time.

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