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Jacqueline Hancher

Tory Turk

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Designer Biography

Early History of Dress and Fashion in the Nordic Countries

Eva B. Andersson, Margarita Gleba, Ulla Mannering and Marianne Vedeler

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The Nordic countries comprise Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Aaland, Finland, Iceland, the Faroes, and Greenland. The northernmost part of Germany and the Norse community on Greenland are also considered here to be within this cultural area. Denmark has abundant Bronze and Early Iron Age finds, while Sweden, Norway, Finland, and Greenland have yielded more medieval material. From about 4200 b.c.e., textiles appear at Danish sites; Early Bronze Age graves have yielded complete garments, including women’

Aboriginal Skin Cloaks

Fabri Blacklock

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

In customary societies Aboriginal people were minimally clothed until contact with Europeans began to alter their habits. One exception was the skin cloaks widely worn by men and women throughout temperate zones of southeastern and western Australia. Cloaks were their main article of dress, important as rugs for warmth, but also for ceremonial use, trade, and as burial shrouds. Indigenous peoples made a variety of cloaks from different types of skin: possums, kangaroos, wallabies, and other fur-b

Siberia

Cunera Buijs

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The northern Asiatic continent, at some four-and-a-half million square miles (twelve million square kilometers), has twenty-five million inhabitants who belong to twenty-six different peoples. The clothing traditions among these groups vary greatly, because they were adapted to diverse natural environments, regional conditions, and the availability of materials. Their development was also influenced by economic structures as well as cultural and historical factors. Such foreign materials as silk

Greenland

Cunera Buijs

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The extremes of the Arctic climate set Greenland dress apart from dress in the rest of West Europe. It is made from the skins and furs of animals and birds and is highly adapted to the conditions and lifestyle of the Arctic people. Even so there are distinctive regional dress cultures of the West Greenlanders (Kilaamiut), Northwest Greenlanders (Inughuit), and East Greenlanders (Tunumiit). It was only in the twentieth century that the dress of Greenlanders began to be influenced by dress in the r

The Miser’s Purse

Laura L. Camerlengo

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Miser’s purses were one of the most popular purse styles in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Crafted in myriad colors and designs, they were made for personal use, as gifts to loved ones, or for commercial sale. These purses were deeply embedded in nineteenth-century popular culture as well. The development of the purse’s form and its social and symbolic roles can be explored by relating references found in nineteenth-century literature and paintings to accounts of these accessories found

The Plains

Adriana Greci Green

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The Plains is a vast region comprising the central portion of the entire North American continent. Very little is known about the dress of the prehistoric inhabitants of the Plains, although there is evidence of Paleo-Indian human occupation dating back at least 13,000 years. These early inhabitants originally hunted mammoths and later pursued the buffalo herds that roamed the great expanses of grassland, as well as elk, deer, antelope, and mountain sheep. A few ornaments, primarily bone, stone,

Yi National Minority

Stevan Harrell and Bamo Qubumo

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Numbering nearly eight million, the Yi national minority is the seventh largest minority in China. Also known as the Nuosu, they live mainly in the hillside and basin areas of Yunnan province, with significant populations in Sichuan and Guizhou provinces, and the Guangxi Autonomous Region. Among the Nuosu Yi people of the Liangshan region, in the mountains of southwestern Sichuan, clothing and decoration reflect social organization and cultural concepts, expressing aesthetic ideals of womanly bea

Namibia

Hildi Hendrickson

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Africa 2010

Encyclopedia entry

In Namibia, the oldest indigenous forms of dress were made from the leather hides of wild and domesticated animals, decorated with shell and locally made metal beads. Before the Colonial period, differing cultural groups and social subgroups distinguished themselves through formalized yet highly inventive hairstyles, headgear, and types of tooth modification. Cloth dress was slowly introduced via Europeans and was adopted in uneven ways. Some indigenous people began wearing cloth early in the Col

Tanzania

Sandra Klopper and Rehema Nchimbi

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Africa 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Tanzania, situated in East Africa and bordering eight countries, contains more than 120 ethnic groups, and many nationalities have played significant roles in its history. Modern Tanzanian dress and decoration reflect its history as a hub for international trade. Imported cloth from Arab traders was widely worn from the nineteenth century onward. Further influences were nineteenth-century Christian missionaries, who imposed European dress codes, and severe poaching laws introduced by the postcolo

Sámi

Desiree Koslin

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Sápmi, the Subarctic region of North Europe and West Russia, is home to the Sámi people, estimated to be a population of about seventy-five thousand to eighty-five thousand in the early twenty-first century. Distinctive dress is an important marker of Sámi identity. Traditional Sámi dress shares many features with other Arctic and Subarctic peoples. Garments and footwear were made from the furs, skins, sinews, and organs of mammals, birds, and fish. Current Sámi festive dress is a source of pride

The Southwest

Nancy J. Parezo

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The American Southwest and northwestern Mexico compose a culture area that is called the Greater Southwest, which since 1848 has been divided by two modern nation-states and influenced by each nation’s history, policy, and attire. As the arid homeland to a wealth of both well-known and little-known cultures, the Southwest has expressed a rich and varied history of attire, defined by both lifestyles and cultures. Based on a basic desert adaptation of prepared animal hide and woven fiber attire, wh

The Arctic

Birgit Pauksztat

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada 2010

Encyclopedia entry

In an environment where temperatures are below freezing for much of the year, appropriate clothing is vital. For the native peoples of Arctic North America, until about the mid-twentieth century, survival largely depended on women’s skills to create clothing that provides insulation against the cold and protection from snow, ice, and water. At the same time, the garments are lightweight and durable, and their designs provide the freedom of movement required for carrying out everyday activities.

Sumptuary Laws

Irvin Cemil Schick

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Sumptuary laws (from Latin sumptuariae leges) are rules that attempt to regulate people’s habits of (luxury) consumption with respect to clothing, food, furniture, housing, and so forth. While they generally have economic underpinnings, they have also historically been used to regulate and reinforce social hierarchies and morals through restrictions on the purchase and display of such luxuries. The following excerpt from an Ottoman imperial edict issued in 1824 makes this clear: Whereas the popul

Fur

Lise Skov

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Fur comes from animal pelts that are chemically treated to make the leather supple and retain the hairs, which consist of guard hairs and underwool. Although furs come from many different animals, the most common in the twenty-first century are mink and fox. Fur has been appreciated for two outstanding qualities: warmth, essential in cold climates, and appearance, which accounts for its association with ostentation and prestige dressing. Comfort and durability have also made fur garments and acce

Royal Dress Preserved at the Topkapi Museum

Hülya Tezcan

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The Topkapi Palace is home to an opulent collection of 1,550 garments of historical Ottoman apparel. The existence of this collection arises from a palace tradition whereby when a sultan or (male) member of the immediate court died, his clothes were removed for safekeeping and placed in protective wrappers. The collection begins with kaftans belonging to Fatih Sultan Mehmed (Mehmed the Conqueror, 1451–1481), and it ends with garments owned by the last sultan, Mehmet Reşad in the early twentieth c

The Subarctic

Judy Thompson

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Clothing was a fundamental and striking feature of the cultures of the Algonquian and Athapaskan peoples of the Subarctic region of North America when Europeans first encountered them in the sixteenth, seventeenth, and eighteenth centuries. Garments made from tanned animal hides afforded protection against a harsh northern environment; beautifully decorated with porcupine quillwork, fringes, and earth pigments, they also provided an important outlet for artistic expression, signified ethnic ident

Rwanda and Burundi

Michele D. Wagner

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Africa 2010

Encyclopedia entry

External appearance has played an important role in the modern history of Rwanda and Burundi, and within this history, by a twist of fate, fashion has been surprisingly well recorded for more than a century. This record of clothing, ornaments, charms, and hairstyles shows that, although the material basis of dress has changed a great deal—especially with the shift away from bark cloth and animal skins—certain forms, such as the togalike umwitero, have persisted over time.

The Northeast

Linda Welters

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Three broad regions based on geographical and cultural boundaries make up the Northeast: Coastal, Saint Lawrence Lowlands, and Great Lakes–Riverine. During prehistoric times, tribes adapted to climatic changes and cultural innovations introduced by other native groups. At the time of contact with Europeans, North American Indians and First Nations were organized into small autonomous bands that sometimes formed alliances, or confederacies, with other groups. The period of thousands of years befor

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