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Cosmetics and Beauty Culture in Australia

Jennifer Craik

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Cosmetics and beauty culture are forms of body modification that have a place in the language of all cultures of fashion and dress. Australia has both indigenous and European traditions of body modification and aesthetics. In precontact times indigenous traditions were centrally connected with ritualistic practices, but they were also about making the body attractive. After European settlement colonists largely followed the cosmetic practices and beauty cultures of Europe and America. Among Europ

Fragrances and Perfumes

Brian Moeran

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The development of modern perfume may be traced to the court of Louis XIV (1643–1715), whose palace at Versailles had no bathrooms. Quantities of perfume were used at court, primarily to mask odors. In the fifth century, an Arab perfumer, Avicenna, had pioneered the distillation of rose water. Arab perfumers established businesses in Granada, and from the eleventh century onwards, the crusaders brought back knowledge of Oriental fragrances to Europe. The first alcohol-based eau de toilette was l’

Cosmetics and Skin Care

Brian Moeran and Lise Skov

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Within the area of dress, defined as body supplements and body modification according to Joanne Eicher’s terminology, cosmetics and skin care are a subgroup of nonpermanent body modifications. Admittedly, the issue of permanence is relative; antiwrinkle cream, for example, is intended to have an enduring effect. Also, in some cases, permanent and nonpermanent treatments are interchangeable; skin bleaching or tattoos can replace makeup, and hair removal can be temporary or permanent.

Intelligent Textiles: The Future of Fashion

Bradley Quinn

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Global Perspectives 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Fashion’s engagement with disciplines such as technology, architecture, industrial design, and biochemistry is creating rapid advancements that radically reinvent its relationship to the body and the built environment. As sustainability becomes increasingly important, new materials and production methods are redefining its relationship to the environment. The first “wearable computer” prototypes of the early 1990s were body-mounted devices such as microphones attached to jackets, waistcoats, and

Cosmetics: Makeup in North America

Shari Sims

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada 2010

Encyclopedia entry

While ancient Egyptian women may have lavished on the eyeliner and African and South American tribes had rich histories of painting their faces for ceremonial occasions, makeup did not really become fully acceptable in North America until the beginning of the twentieth century. Using patent creams and lotions for perfecting one’s complexion was one thing, but “painting” one’s face was frowned on in polite society. Yet in true American expansionism, within a small space of years, a multitude of th

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