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Junya Watanabe

Stephanie Edith Herold

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Designer Biography

Ronaldus Shamask

Shari Sims

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Designer Biography

Knitwear in Fashion from 1970

Jo Turney

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Article

Knitwear has a history almost as long as clothing and therefore is a familiar aspect of dress. Most frequently, knitted clothing is associated with women’s creative domestic practice, as it has been associated with thriftiness, philanthropy, and making do, especially during wartime, and thus seems to exist or be understood as outside of the dynamic world of fashion. Yet, most catwalk collections include some knitwear, and it is central to notions of fashion, embracing the Zeitgeist in relation to

Shifts and Balances: 1900–1920s

Joy Spanabel Emery

Source: A History of the Paper Pattern Industry. The Home Dressmaking Fashion Revolution 2014

Book chapter

A dynamic new figure entered the pattern enterprise in the first decade of the new century. Condé Nast was adept at promotion and was attracted to the pattern industry. He organized the Home Pattern Company and distributed dress patterns in an arrangement with Ladies’ Home Journal in 1905 (Seebohm 1982: 32). The Ladies’ Home Journal was an influential women’s periodical with a circulation of 1,000,000 (Mott 1938: vol. 4, 545). Nast had remarkable marketing skills and successfully promoted pattern

Home Front Clothing Initiatives

Geraldine Howell

Source: Wartime Fashion. From Haute Couture to Homemade, 1939–1945 2012

Book chapter

IT in the Clothing Industry

Céline Abecassis-Moedas

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Information technology (IT) in the clothing industry is one of the elements that allows the latest fashion trends from the catwalks to be transformed into mass-market products within days. In clothing manufacturing, it is important to distinguish between preassembly of garments (design, marker-making, or putting the patterns on the fabric, spreading the fabric, cutting, and bundling operations) and garment assembly. Most of the innovations in production and information technologies are taking pla

The Turban: India and Pakistan

Vandana Bhandari

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. South Asia and Southeast Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Since ancient times the turban has constituted an important part of male dress on the Indian Subcontinent. Its basic form is a wrapped headdress made from a length of fabric that is coiled or pleated and wound around the head. The type of fabric, its dimensions, color, ornament, and style of wrapping may vary, but the essential concept, purpose, and mode of construction remain the same throughout the different regions where it is worn. The turban was known by several Sanskrit names in antiquity—u

Greenland

Cunera Buijs

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The extremes of the Arctic climate set Greenland dress apart from dress in the rest of West Europe. It is made from the skins and furs of animals and birds and is highly adapted to the conditions and lifestyle of the Arctic people. Even so there are distinctive regional dress cultures of the West Greenlanders (Kilaamiut), Northwest Greenlanders (Inughuit), and East Greenlanders (Tunumiit). It was only in the twentieth century that the dress of Greenlanders began to be influenced by dress in the r

Ireland

Síle de Cléir

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The situation regarding the various types of dress in Ireland in the period between the beginning of the nineteenth and the end of the twentieth centuries is a complex one. It is useful, perhaps, in this context to see dress in Ireland at this time as a continuum: folk dress at one end, characterized by locally produced fabrics and traditional aesthetics and deeply embedded in a local social and cultural context; and fashionable dress at the other, with a wider choice of materials and styles conn

The Garment Industry and Retailing in Canada

Cynthia Cooper

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The apparel industry is the tenth-largest manufacturing sector in Canada. Apparel is manufactured in all provinces and territories. T. Eaton Company was a department store that operated from 1869 to 1999 and became a household name in Canada as a mail order company. As one of the early large manufacturers, it led the way in vertical integration. Eaton’s introduced its first mail order catalog in 1884, a thirty-two-page booklet listing department store merchandise. While a wide variety of merchand

Miao National Minority

Gina Corrigan

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Today, the Miao ethnic minority live in southwestern China, their population totaling 8.9 million. Miao origins and migrations are controversial and poorly documented, but we know that attempts to subdue them have been difficult. Miao in remote mountain regions developed many garments, expressing cultural identity. In 2000 a book published in China illustrated 173 different styles of Miao dress. Following the death of Mao Zedong in 1976, the female population in the countryside again adopted trad

Slovak Embroidery

Oı’ga Danglová

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The oldest archeological evidence about embroidery in the territory of Slovakia dates to the third century b.c.e. In the Middle Ages, embroidery appeared on religious textiles and was worked by professional craftsmen. The first archive records about embroidery guilds in the territory of Slovakia date to the fifteenth century, referring to guilds of silk embroiderers in Košice and Bratislava. Inspired by the Renaissance penchant for luxury, embroidery was applied to clothing of the aristocracy and

The Pattern Industry

Carol Anne Dickson

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The pattern industry in the United States and Canada had as its antecedents a number of earlier attempts to simplify the making of garments. The first patterns, made by cloistered monks, consisted of only two pieces. In the thirteenth century, French master tailor Charles Daillac began making his patterns out of thin pieces of wood. In the late fourteenth and early fifteenth centuries, fashion journals began to appear, illustrating and describing the increasingly complex fashions of the times. In

Patterns and Pattern Making

Joy Spanabel Emery

Source: The Berg Companion to Fashion 2010

Encyclopedia entry

In the United States, Godey’s sold full-scale patterns by Mme Demorest through mail order in 1854. Frank Leslie’s Gazette of Fashions included full-scale, foldout Demorest patterns in the monthly periodical as well as offering patterns by mail. The patterns were one size only. Because they were offered through retail or mail order, Demorest patterns were the first commercial patterns in the United States (Emery, p. 1999). They offered a wide range of ladies, children’s, and men’s tissue-paper pat

The Apparel Industry

Jan Hilger

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Before the mid-nineteenth century garments were produced manually. With the invention of sewing machines, mass manufacturing became possible. In just over 160 years, business complexity increased from one-man companies, dominated by artisan tailors, to multinational corporations. In Europe and in the United States the first apparel factories following the Fordist model were established. A new unskilled workforce replaced skilled craftsmen. With growing distance from the consumer and decreasing in

The Kaftan and Its Origins

Charlotte Jirousek

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The term kaftan usually refers to a long, unfitted coat of Turkic, Persian, or Central Asian origin. Many variations on front-opening coats originated with Central Asian horse-riding nomads. These nomads were both Uro-Altaic and Indo-European in origin. The coats were worn in layers over loose trousers that protected the legs from chafing. Layered garments were also useful in a very changeable climate. The earliest examples of the wearing of kaftan-like coats are to be found in graves of early no

The Fashion Industry

Yuniya Kawamura

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Global Perspectives 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The origin of garment making is traceable to when humans started covering their bodies. Western clothes changed from the unconstructed dress of the ancient Mediterranean world to the more structured garments of the late Middle Ages. Western apparel became more intricate, requiring increasingly specialized skills for its construction. Before the Industrial Revolution that began in England in the latter half of the eighteenth century, making clothes was an arduous task, and quality garments were an

The Sari

Aarti Kawlra

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. South Asia and Southeast Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The word sari refers to the unstitched length of cloth that serves as the principal component of a clothing ensemble that most often includes a bodice and a petticoat. Known widely as the national dress of the Indian woman, the sari is a draped item of clothing whose contemporary sartorial expression has evolved over centuries of exchange between indigenous cultures and foreign influence. Historical records of the textile trade from India include mention of saris woven in special designs and tech

Stitched and Shaped Garments

Kalyan Krishna

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. South Asia and Southeast Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Sewn garments are rarely seen in early Indian sculptures, although they were worn by attendants or foreigners. Stitched garments were allegedly introduced in India in the early Christian era, when tribes migrated from Central Asia, or through the coming of Islam. Early Buddhist literature, however, contains several references to stitched clothing. During the Gupta period (approximately 280 to 550 c.e.), fully tailored, partly stitched, and unstitched costumes were fashionable. By the late twelfth

The Structure and Form of European Clothes

Peter McNeil

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Clothing is both a material covering and an enclosure for the body that in West Europe is generally constructed through draping or cutting cloth or through weaving or knitting it to shape. The structure of European dress is also bound up with abstract ideals of conduct and beauty. The aesthetic and phenomenological dimension of clothing moving in space is also significant. Some fashions such as women’s court dress from the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries were designed to be “read” from a fro

Fashion Designers

Peter McNeil

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Fashion designers are associated in the popular imagination with haute couture (high fashion) and famous individuals. Fashionable clothing requires a concept and also fabrication; sometimes this process is symbiotic, as in the work of many twentieth-century fashion designers. Fashion design can also be linked to aspects of the trades and seen as a vernacular activity with a much longer history. The development of the idea of the fashion designer requires an understanding of the history of making

Individualizing Japanese Student Uniforms

Brian J. McVeigh

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

In some cultures, sociopolitical environments encourage theatricality, rituality, and selves that are self-consciously performed, so that the bifurcation of the self into genuine expressions and social masks is more salient. The reasons behind this “splitting of the self” vary from place to place and from period to period. In any case, the need to separate the personal self from the public persona, backstage orchestrations from front-stage performances, and behind-the-curtains from before-the-foo

Italy

Elisabetta Merlo and Francesca Polese

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

If we use the expression Italian fashion to indicate the production of garments and accessories that are marked by distinctive and unique features universally associated with Italian culture and identity, then such a phenomenon appears only well after the political unification of the country (1861) and indeed is barely discernible prior to World War II. Moreover, even once the creations of Italian couturiers became celebrated in international markets beginning in the 1950s, Italy’s fashion scene

Gender

Susan O. Michelman and Kimberly Miller-Spillman

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Gender remains the basic distinction in dress, currently and historically, in American and Canadian society. Masculinity or femininity is reflected in the presentation of dress by the individual and is categorically interpreted by others according to societal norms. Gender is determined psychologically, socially, and culturally and refers to acceptable behavior and dress for males and females. Gender, and by extension dress, is a social and cultural construction. Viewing gender as a fluid concept

Kimono

Terry Satsuki Milhaupt

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The word kimono is recognized globally as a Japanese term, typically defined as a floor-length robe, wrapped left over right around the body and worn by both men and women. Assembled from seven pieces that are cut from a single bolt of cloth—two body panels, two sleeves, two overlaps, and a collar—the kimono is simply constructed and less fitted to the body than Western attire. The precise meaning of kimono differs across temporal and cultural borders.

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