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Sonja Nuttall

Elizabeth Kutesko

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Designer Biography

Ethical Fashion and Ecofashion

Sandy Black

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Global Perspectives 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Although the fashion industry is fast-moving and often dismissed as frivolous, it represents one of the major global economic players. Fashion is one of the few remaining craft-based industries, relying on skilled manual labour for manufacturing across its wide spectrum of levels, which raises particular issues for production. There is an urgent need to reconcile ethical, environmental, social, and personal agendas through future product development and manufacturing cycles in the fashion industr

Size and Fit in Industrially Produced Clothes

Karen Borregaard

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The defining characteristic of ready-to-wear clothes, which differentiates them from made-to-measure clothes, is that they are produced in standard sizes to fit individuals whose exact body dimensions are not known by producers. The aim of standard sizes is to fit as many in a target group as possible. Size refers to both a garment’s measurements and the way size is communicated to customers. In addition, each ready-to-wear style is produced in a range of sizes, known as a sizing system. The numb

Fashion Cities

Christopher Breward

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Global Perspectives 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The history of Western fashion is closely related to the history of urban life. As cultural geographer David Gilbert has claimed, this complex relationship underpins contemporary understandings of global fashion as a system orchestrated around a shifting network of world cities, particularly Paris, New York, London, Milan, and Tokyo but also incorporating (at various times) Moscow, Vienna, Berlin, São Paulo, Kuwait City, Cape Town, Barcelona, Antwerp, Delhi, Melbourne, Sydney, Shanghai, Hong Kong

Portugal

Paula C. G. da Costa Soares

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Changes in Portuguese dress have closely followed political developments, with the 1974 revolution marking the biggest turning point. During the dictatorship, dress styles were conservative, fashion was class based, and low incomes forced most families to be economical in their consumption of clothes. The 1974 Carnation Revolution led to a revolution in fashion as well, with the emergence of a plethora of informal dress styles that were associated with equality and democracy. In the 1980s and 199

Settler Dress in Australia

Damayanthie Eluwawalage

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Clothing was a problematic aspect of the social and cultural life of colonial Australia from the time of first settlement in 1788. Apart from military officers and civil officials, much everyday clothing was working-class wear. Yet fashionable dress was soon to become a key aspect of cultural practice, emphasizing the social status and power of the elite and aspirational elite, as well as being a symbolic indicator of class. Status signals were important in this fledgling society made up of dispa

Jews in the Melbourne Garment Trade

Anna Epstein

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

For a large part of the twentieth century the garment trade was an important industry in the southern Australian state of Victoria. Since clothing was a big part of the country’s manufacturing, the Jews of the garment trade made a large contribution to Australia’s economy. This multifaceted industry had its own economic and social history, gorgeous products, and camaraderie and color at its heart, Flinders Lane. It gave rise to the individualism, flair, entrepreneurial spirit, and sheer fun that

Display Mannequins

Leopoldina Fortunati

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Global Perspectives 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Although the dress mannequin is usually considered marginal within the marketing and displaying of fashionable clothing, it can be analyzed as a key cultural artifact in the fashion system. The display mannequin is part of an archaic imagery of humankind, similar to automatons, robots, and dolls. At a metaphoric level, it has an importance in Western culture, because on a symbolic plane the mannequin replaces the human being. In fashion, the mannequin engages in the dialogue between the container

European Retailers and Global Sourcing Networks

Lotte Thomsen

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The sourcing networks of global buyers have spread over a large range of countries and regions, and clothing consumption in West Europe in the early twenty-first century is almost entirely fed by imports from developing countries. There are considerable differences in the sourcing policies and practices of major West European retailers. But in the early twenty-first century, clothing sourcing networks—especially those based in Anglo-Saxon countries—are reaching a level of maturity that imposes ne

Creating a Collection in a Big Company

Kasper Tang Vangkilde

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The creation of a fashion collection in a big fashion company is a complex cooperative process. Various people with diverse skills and experiences, such as designers, brand specialists, clothing technicians, production planners, and others, are involved in the creative process from the idea to the finished collection. HUGO BOSS, a leading European high-end fashion company, is a case in point. Because of the company’s strong product focus, each product group (for example, shirts or knitwear) is ha

Retailing, Clothing, and Textiles Production in Australia

Sally Weller

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Although the Australian textiles and clothing manufacturing industries have been contracting steadily since the early 1970s, the range of activities involved in bringing clothing and related products to the market remain a major component of the national economy and an important source of employment, especially in urban areas. The people engaged in bringing clothing and clothing-related textiles to Australia’s consumer markets work in a variety of industries including retailing, importing, wholes

Introduction to Case Study

Joanne Entwistle

Source: The Aesthetic Economy of Fashion. Markets and Value in Clothing and Modelling 2009

Book chapter

The fieldwork upon which this book is based was conducted in the Buying Office at Selfridges department store on London’s Oxford Street over a 6-month period from March 2002, with a few follow-up interviews in early 2003. Funded by the Economic and Social Research Council, the project began life as an ethnographic study concerned with the way in which fashion buyers might be said to be ‘cultural intermediaries’ (Bourdieu 1984), said to mediate between production and consumption. In terms of the f

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Understanding High Fashion: Retailing and Buying

Joanne Entwistle

Source: The Aesthetic Economy of Fashion. Markets and Value in Clothing and Modelling 2009

Book chapter

Defining high fashion clothing and describing the UK fashion retailing arena is far from easy. As Crewe and Davenport (1992: 183) describe it, ‘the clothing retail sector is by no means a homogenous entity … since it is dissected across a variety of dimensions, including size, ownership, and market segment. Marks and Spencer is clearly a very different creature to a small independent designer store.’ As they point out, there are further conditions that make it difficult to study this sector: it i

Tacit Aesthetic Knowledge: The Fashion Sense and Sensibility of Fashion Buyers

Joanne Entwistle

Source: The Aesthetic Economy of Fashion. Markets and Value in Clothing and Modelling 2009

Book chapter

The codified/tacit dichotomy has been a major concern in the literature on knowledge and is closely associated with Michael Polanyi (1967). The distinction between them comes down to ‘the degree of formalization’ ‘and the requirement of presence in knowledge formation’ (Howells 2002). Codified knowledge is said to exist in formal language and system (in documents, papers, patents and other materials that circulate within firms). As we have seen in the previous chapter, such knowledge at Selfridge

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The Cultural Economy of Fashion Buying

Joanne Entwistle

Source: The Aesthetic Economy of Fashion. Markets and Value in Clothing and Modelling 2009

Book chapter

In contrast to the other two encounters, the buyer/customer encounter is a highly mediated one since buyers do not confront consumers directly. However, this meeting is critical and returns us to the central issue in all markets, raised in the Introduction, of ‘attachment’. The ability of buyers to know what products to purchase, actively calculating taste in the process, is critical to Selfridges’s ability to capture—‘attach’—customers and, thus, carve out a place for itself in the marketplace.

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Conclusion

Joanne Entwistle

Source: The Aesthetic Economy of Fashion. Markets and Value in Clothing and Modelling 2009

Book chapter

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Used Clothing

Mélissa Gauthier

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Latin America and the Caribbean 2005

Encyclopedia entry

Although not new, the global circulation of secondhand clothing from the West to the Third World has expanded rapidly over the past two decades. The United States is the world’s largest exporter of used clothing, American exports having grown significantly since the late twentieth century. Different countries subject imported American secondhand clothing to various trade policies, from liberalization to protectionist. A recent review by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (

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