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Home Front Clothing Initiatives

Geraldine Howell

Source: Wartime Fashion. From Haute Couture to Homemade, 1939–1945 2012

Book chapter

Rural Dress in Australia

Jennifer Craik

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

A distinctive Australian sense of dress for Europeans is often considered to be bush wear, that is, clothes that have become synonymous with rural life and the outback. The typical elements of this rural dress include moleskin trousers, elastic-sided boots, cotton or wool shirt, bush jacket (in denim, wool, or leather) or waterproof oilskin coat, and a wide-brimmed felt hat. These garments are typically worn by men, so particular traits of masculinity are woven into the image of Australian bush w

Women’s Invisible Labor in Dress Practices: Care

Leopoldina Fortunati

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Fashion consumption hides a great deal of invisible labor; changes in this labor have influenced and silently but effectively reoriented the fashion world. This invisible labor is the work done in everyday life to buy, clean, iron, and mend clothes. These supplementary but ongoing tasks keep clothes in good condition. To what extent is this labor still performed at a mass level? Who does it in the early twenty-first century? A survey carried out in Italy with a sample of four hundred respondents

Germany

Irene Guenther

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

German dress in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries was closely linked to French–German relations. Critics disapproved of affluent German women’s fondness for French styles. During the Napoleonic wars, German rural folk dress often featured prominently at national festivals, manifesting patriotism. Ironically, it was with the French occupation during this time that German fragmentation consolidated, bringing a sense of “Germanness.” Industrialization occurred rapidly in the German states. Afte

Secondhand Clothing

Karen Tranberg Hansen

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Global Perspectives 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Secondhand clothing constitutes a global market of commerce and consumption that has a long but changing history with complex links to garment production, tailoring, and couture. In Europe and North America, secondhand clothing was an important source of clothing well into the nineteenth century, until mass production and growing prosperity enabled more and more people to purchase brand-new rather than previously worn garments. During Europe’s imperial expansion, the trade in secondhand clothing

Ecological Issues in Dress

Jana M. Hawley

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Ecological concerns relating to dress arise at various points in the processes used to manufacture textiles and apparel and also as a result of the use of those products. These concerns are similar in both the United States and Canada, and the solutions to these problems are much the same in both countries.

Secondhand Clothing

Heike Jenss

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The term secondhand clothing connotes garments that enter a second or new circle of use after they have been worn or used by a previous owner. The handing down, sale, and reuse of previously worn garments have been common practices throughout the history of dress. Even into the twentieth century, garments were expensive goods and often a family investment that was passed on to the next generation or traded and exchanged for other goods. With the wider accessibility of fashion and the acceleration

Perfumed Dress and Textiles

Katia Johansen

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Global Perspectives 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Perfumed dress and textiles are standard in every culture, yet virtually none have been preserved. Fragrances were once considered to be the souls of objects and therefore sacred. Incense, used worldwide in religious ceremonies, is often noticeable on vestments. Perfuming was used to mask bad odors, for ceremonies, or simply for appeal. Perfuming methods included using incense, sweet bags, oils, and fuming pans. Perfume is generally made of the volatile oils of plants, grasses, spices, herbs, woo

Historical Evidence: Japan

Alan Kennedy

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

In no other civilization has historical dress been so carefully preserved and documented as in Japan. This unique approach stems from its ancient tradition of above-ground storage. The earliest, most important costumes surviving above ground in Japan comprise nine patchwork Buddhist robes, preserved in a temple complex founded in the eighth century c.e. Even foreign non-Buddhist robes can be found in Japanese Buddhist temples. Various sixteenth-century dragon robes, gifted from the Chinese court,

Care and Maintenance

Ingun Grimstad Klepp

Translated by Stig Erik Sørheim

Kjetil Enstad

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Care and maintenance are important for both durability and appearance of clothes. Historically, clothing and textiles have been among the most precious possessions of a household, and extensive repairs and careful maintenance were worthwhile. Many people owned only one set of clothes; in poor families, the mother stayed up past bedtime because repairs had to be made when the clothes had been taken off for the night. Even for better-off women, mending and patching were everyday tasks. They have be

Vintage Dress

Maria Mackinney-Valentin

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Global Perspectives 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The term vintage generally refers to the revived use of certain secondhand clothes, shoes, and accessories primarily originating from the twentieth century. From being a subcultural phenomenon in the mid-1990s, vintage became a mainstream trend in Euro-American markets around the beginning of the twenty-first century. Vintage can be seen as a paradoxical fashion phenomenon in the sense that it assumes durable qualities similar to those of vintage cars and wine, while fashion is often defined by t

United States World War II Clothing Restrictions

Jennifer M. Mower and Elaine L. Pedersen

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada 2010

Encyclopedia entry

In April 1942, four months after the attack on Pearl Harbor, the War Production Board issued Limitation Order 85 in order to conserve fabric needed for the war effort. The purpose of the order was to ensure that no major style changes in women’s wear would occur during the war. However, consumer apparel continued to be marketed throughout the war, though often the marketing efforts were patriotic. For example, The New York Times, 19 August 1942, reported that New York fashion designer Jane Engel

Switzerland

Sigrid Pallmert

Translated by Kirsten Warner

Philipp Thüring

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

As a multicultural country, dress in Switzerland has been characterized by a cosmopolitan outlook and adoption of international influences. Bourgeois styles have been dominant, but at various times communities of radical thinkers and avant-garde artists have made their mark on Swiss dress styles. For the rural population, regional and ethnic dress has been very important, to the extent that Swiss folklore has had a considerable influence on the perception of Switzerland. This is true even in the

Norway

Tone Rasch

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Is it possible to understand the way people dress by looking at their history and natural environment? A survey of Norwegians’ habits and attitudes related to clothing suggests that the answer is yes. The country is located on the periphery of the European continent. There are few inhabitants, and the combination of a long coastline and numerous mountain ranges has led to scattered settlements and great distances between them. Politically, Norway became independent in 1905 after being a part of t

Historical Evidence: Tibet

Valrae Reynolds

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

There is evidence of human habitation in Tibet since Neolithic times. Despite geographical isolation, Tibetans had links with ancient Eastern and European cultures. Chinese records from the seventh to tenth centuries, while emphasizing the civilizing Chinese influence on Tibetans, provide significant information. Homespun woolens have been excavated from Neolithic and later sites. Imported luxuries, especially silk, feature prominently in Tibetan texts. After the Tibetan empire collapsed in the n

Materials

Giorgio Riello

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Before 1800, fashionable individuals were defined as much by the textiles they chose as the styles they wore. There are characteristics shared by all textiles. First, they were used by people across society to construct notions of worth and appropriateness. Second, their importance in medieval, early modern, and modern European societies was linked to their value. Before industrialization reduced production costs, textiles remained generally luxuries. A third shared characteristic was their ubiqu

Ethics and Industry

Lise Skov

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The question of ethics is about determining concepts of right and wrong human action. There are a number of ethical controversies in relation to the industries that dress the visible self, especially the clothing, shoes, accessories, and skin-care industries. The five main areas of controversy are, first, representations of idealized gender and body images; second, fakes and counterfeits of branded goods; third, working conditions; fourth, environmental impact and sustainability; and fifth, anima

England

Naomi E.A. Tarrant

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

In 1800, the people of England dressed in the general West European clothing style that was worn by all fashionable people. Wealth determined what a person could afford to wear but not the style. There was no folk dress, so the general impression was that wealthy people wore the same styles as their workers, with only the quality showing the difference. The poor acquired garments from secondhand clothes dealers or as gifts from wealthier family members or friends, charities, and employers, as wel

Royal Dress Preserved at the Topkapi Museum

Hülya Tezcan

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The Topkapi Palace is home to an opulent collection of 1,550 garments of historical Ottoman apparel. The existence of this collection arises from a palace tradition whereby when a sultan or (male) member of the immediate court died, his clothes were removed for safekeeping and placed in protective wrappers. The collection begins with kaftans belonging to Fatih Sultan Mehmed (Mehmed the Conqueror, 1451–1481), and it ends with garments owned by the last sultan, Mehmet Reşad in the early twentieth c

Legislation in the United States and Canada

Phyllis G. Tortora

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Laws enacted to regulate the use, merchandising, and manufacture of textile products often reflect current technological advances while providing insight into fashionable dress trends. Laws may also reflect changes in economic aspects of the international textile and apparel industries. This article describes legislation in the United States and Canada that applies to textiles, apparel, and other materials used in dress, together with the circumstances that led to the need for the legislation, es

Care of Dress

Patricia Campbell Warner

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Until the twentieth century, the care of clothing generally meant arduous back-breaking work undertaken by females. Traditionally, outer clothing was protected from the body, even as the body was protected from the outer clothing, by linen shifts, shirts, petticoats, and sometimes drawers. For most people, these items were washed only when absolutely necessary. As for the rest of the clothes, until the age of cotton, which began in the late eighteenth century, most simply were never washed at all

Other People's Clothes? The International Secondhand Clothing Trade and Dress Practices in Zambia

Karen Tranberg Hansen

Source: Classic and Modern Writings on Fashion 2nd Edition 2009

Book chapter

In much of the West today, second-hand clothing makes up fringe, or niche, markets. Income distribution, purchasing power, affordable mass-produced garments and apparel, and concerns with fashion have reduced the need for large segments of the population to purchase used clothing. But well into the nineteenth century, used clothing constituted the effective market for much of the population except the very rich. Still in many countries in the Third World today, where the cost factor is enormously

Creative Entrepreneurs: The Recycling of Second Hand Indian Clothing

Lucy Norris

Source: Old Clothes, New Looks. Second Hand Fashion 2005

Book chapter

In recent years, Western markets have been overflowing with furnishings and clothing made from Indian sari fabrics. Independent traders working in street markets, festivals and small boutiques sell a variety of cushions, bedspreads and wall hangings, alongside various items of clothing in Western styles, such as halter-neck tops, skirts and trousers. By mid 1999, British shops selling furniture and furnishings were festooned with Indian fabrics and designs made up into Western consumer goods. Hig

Cloth That Lies: The Secrets of Recycling in India

Lucy Norris

Source: Clothing as Material Culture 2005

Book chapter

I have described the commodification of Indian clothing elsewhere in more detail (Norris 2004) and its subsequent recycling by entrepreneurial dealers (Norris 2005). Here I will only briefly sum up the main dynamics of the process in order to make the comparison with the importing of used clothing from abroad. Periodically, middle- and upper-class Indian women sort though their clothing, and put to one side garments that they wish to divest. Good quality clothes are usually passed on to younger f

Working the Edge: XULY.Bët’s Recycled Clothing

Victoria L. Rovine

Source: Old Clothes, New Looks. Second Hand Fashion 2005

Book chapter

XULY.Bët’s recycled clothing, one among several styles produced by the company, has consistently drawn the attention of the fashion and popular press in Europe and, less prominently, in the United States. Major periodicals including Le Monde, The New York Times, Glamour, Essence, Elle and Vogue have all featured articles on Kouyaté and his work (Renaux, 1994). The designer manages to balance the trendiness that generally draws the attention of the fashion press with a complex sense of his cultura

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