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Surviving the Depression: 1930s

Joy Spanabel Emery

Source: A History of the Paper Pattern Industry. The Home Dressmaking Fashion Revolution 2014

Book chapter

Pattern producers repudiate rumors that they enjoyed a boom during the Depression. Like most other businesses, theirs suffers when people are hard up; it recovers when people start spending again. Patterns hit bottom in 1932. Improvement began in the Fall of 1933, but not soon enough to make an increase for the year. Estimates place 1934 ahead of 1933 by about 10%.

Assessing the Impact of Clothes Rationing

Geraldine Howell

Source: Wartime Fashion. From Haute Couture to Homemade, 1939–1945 2012

Book chapter

Utility and Austerity

Geraldine Howell

Source: Wartime Fashion. From Haute Couture to Homemade, 1939–1945 2012

Book chapter

Calls for Rationed Fashion

Geraldine Howell

Source: Wartime Fashion. From Haute Couture to Homemade, 1939–1945 2012

Book chapter

Setting the Ration

Geraldine Howell

Source: Wartime Fashion. From Haute Couture to Homemade, 1939–1945 2012

Book chapter

The Utility Clothing Scheme

Geraldine Howell

Source: Wartime Fashion. From Haute Couture to Homemade, 1939–1945 2012

Book chapter

IT in the Clothing Industry

Céline Abecassis-Moedas

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Information technology (IT) in the clothing industry is one of the elements that allows the latest fashion trends from the catwalks to be transformed into mass-market products within days. In clothing manufacturing, it is important to distinguish between preassembly of garments (design, marker-making, or putting the patterns on the fabric, spreading the fabric, cutting, and bundling operations) and garment assembly. Most of the innovations in production and information technologies are taking pla

Garments, International Trade in

Teri Agins

Source: The Berg Companion to Fashion 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Somalia

Heather Marie Akou

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Africa 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Somalia is located in the Horn of Africa. The northern coast is less than one hundred miles from the Arabian Peninsula and shares a great deal of history and dress with that region. In the cities, houses are built with thick walls to keep out the heat; in the deserts, nomadic people live in shelters constructed of branches covered with leather or plastic, and distinct differences in dress exist. Nomadic dress has typically been more practical and flexible, consisting of leather, cotton wrappers,

Fashion Designers, Seamstresses, and Tailors

Cynthia Amnéus

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Throughout the nineteenth century, North American fashion followed the dictates of French design. American dressmakers and tailors looked to Paris for the newest silhouettes and adapted them to the American lifestyle. It was not until the 1930s that independent fashion designers emerged and rejected the idea that all fashion must be inspired by Paris. These early designers created a unique “American look” that was predicated on comfort. This design tended to be more casual, with an air of sophist

Hawaiian Dress Prior to 1898

Linda Boynton Arthur

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Hawai’i is an archipelago in the Pacific Ocean, a chain referred to simply as Hawai’i or the Hawaiian Islands. The six major islands are Oahu, Kauai, Maui, Molokai, Lanai, and the Big Island, that is, Hawai’i. The latter name is rarely used, in order to reduce confusion, since Hawai’i (the archipelago) became an American state in 1959. Until the late eighteenth century the peoples who inhabited these islands shared a common culture, although they were somewhat divided politically in that each had

Influence of North American Indian and First Nations Dress on Mainstream Fashion

Pamela C. Baker and Phyllis G. Tortora

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Fashion designers of First Nations and North American Indian ancestry began to feel confident about being referred to as fashion designers only by the early 1970s. Fashion has not always been important to indigenous people, but telling a story has. Through their work these designers believe they are telling the story of their people; they are passionate about their work and especially passionate about how it supports their communities. The difference between North American aboriginal design and m

Fashion under Socialism

Djurdja Bartlett

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The relationship between dress and Socialism started in Soviet Russia following the 1917 Communist Revolution. When Soviet-style Socialism was introduced in East Europe in 1948, dress became an important ideological and practical issue in the countries under Soviet political control. However, the styles of garments, and the discourses in which they were embedded, were not homogeneous in the Soviet Union and the East European countries during the seventy-two years of Communist rule. Both similarit

Fashion Journalism

Kate Nelson Best

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Fashion journalism embraces all kinds of media commentary, but primarily newspaper and magazine articles, about the fashion industry, those who populate the fashion world, and fashion itself. As such, it has commercial, ideological, and symbolic functions that have remained unchanged since the mid-1800s.

Fashion Cities

Christopher Breward

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Global Perspectives 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The history of Western fashion is closely related to the history of urban life. As cultural geographer David Gilbert has claimed, this complex relationship underpins contemporary understandings of global fashion as a system orchestrated around a shifting network of world cities, particularly Paris, New York, London, Milan, and Tokyo but also incorporating (at various times) Moscow, Vienna, Berlin, São Paulo, Kuwait City, Cape Town, Barcelona, Antwerp, Delhi, Melbourne, Sydney, Shanghai, Hong Kong

Body Ornaments of Solomon Islands

Ben Burt

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The country of Solomon Islands was formed in the 1890s by British colonization of a chain of islands in the southwest Pacific region of Melanesia. From west to east these include the major islands of Choiseul, New Georgia, Santa Isabel, Guadalcanal, Malaita, and Makira, with many smaller groups from Shortland Islands in the west to Santa Cruz far to the east. Like other island Melanesians in Papua New Guinea to the west and Vanuatu to the east, Solomon Islanders live by farming, foraging, and fis

Moldova

Jennifer Renea Cash

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The history of dress in Moldova requires a brief historical introduction. At the beginning of the twenty-first century, Moldova refers to the Republic of Moldova, which in its turn is best understood by distinguishing two subregions: Bessarabia and Transnistria. The ethnic majority in both regions is Moldovan (that is, Romanian), and many customs and traditions, including those related to dress and adornment, are shared between the two regions. Nevertheless, the political history of the regions w

Ethnic Groups of Arunachal Pradesh, Northeast India

Sucheta Sen Chaudhuri and Sarit Kumar Chaudhuri

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. South Asia and Southeast Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Arunachal Pradesh, “land of the dawn-lit mountains,” is India’s easternmost state. It shares a border with Assam to the south and Nagaland to the southeast; Bhutan lies to the west, Myanmar to the east, and Tibet to the north. Briefly designated as the North East Frontier Agency (1954–1972), this area has remained, culturally and geographically, a meeting point of civilizations: Chinese, Central Asian, Southeast Asian, and Indian.

Textile Manufacture in Taiwan

Yu Cheng-Ping and Wu Chi-Jen

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Before the Qing dynasty (1644–1911) ceded Taiwan to Japan in 1895, Taiwan’s economy was based on agriculture. Its environment was not suitable for planting cotton or raising sheep. Other than domestic, self-sufficient textile production, there was no textile industry. The demand for textiles relied on imports from the mainland. This changed radically beginning in 1896 with the Japanese colonization of Taiwan. Taiwan’s textile industry can be divided into five periods: (1) Japanese colonial period

Eyewear

M. Catherine Daly

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Global Perspectives 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Eyeglasses are traditionally defined as a frame that holds lenses that sit on the bridge of the nose and atop the ears. They may simultaneously improve vision, protect the wearer and enhance their appearance. Over time, vision, protection, aesthetics and fashion have contributed to the necessity as well as popularity of eyeglasses. There are many related terms for eyeglasses and some have more cache in different parts of the world as well as different eras. Eyewear comes into use in the 1920s, em

The Maldive Islands

Jasleen Dhamija

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. South Asia and Southeast Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Located in the Indian Ocean, the Maldives have from the earliest times been in the path of ships from nations pursuing trade with South Asia, Southeast Asia, and beyond, including Arabs, Persians, Greeks, Romans, and Sassanians. They were thus open to numerous influences. The islands’ conversion to Islam, possibly brought about by visiting traders, impacted greatly on local dress. Inhabitants of more isolated islands could not afford to buy textiles from India in premodern times; a fifteenth-cent

Textile and Apparel Industries at the Turn of the Millennium

Kitty G. Dickerson

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Behind the runway shows and other glitz and glamour of the fashion industry are the textile and apparel firms that churn out the garments and other textile products for U.S. consumers. These are companies that have to deal with serious realities of profit and survival in an intensely competitive environment. Just as fashions are transformed over the years with hemlines that rise and fall and silhouettes that change, the industries and companies that produce the fashions have been completely trans

Kalabari Peoples of Nigeria

Joanne B. Eicher

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Africa 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The Kalabari Ijo have a long history as traders of cloth and apparel items in the Niger Delta. They traded with the world beyond their immediate boundaries of thirty-two islands found among mangrove swamps of the Niger River tributaries near the Atlantic Ocean. Their trading provided access to imported goods, particularly textiles, which they used and continue to use in creative ways. Rather than just borrow the textiles, they make them identifiable as uniquely Kalabari, a process that has been c

Settler Dress in Australia

Damayanthie Eluwawalage

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Clothing was a problematic aspect of the social and cultural life of colonial Australia from the time of first settlement in 1788. Apart from military officers and civil officials, much everyday clothing was working-class wear. Yet fashionable dress was soon to become a key aspect of cultural practice, emphasizing the social status and power of the elite and aspirational elite, as well as being a symbolic indicator of class. Status signals were important in this fledgling society made up of dispa

Jews in the Melbourne Garment Trade

Anna Epstein

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

For a large part of the twentieth century the garment trade was an important industry in the southern Australian state of Victoria. Since clothing was a big part of the country’s manufacturing, the Jews of the garment trade made a large contribution to Australia’s economy. This multifaceted industry had its own economic and social history, gorgeous products, and camaraderie and color at its heart, Flinders Lane. It gave rise to the individualism, flair, entrepreneurial spirit, and sheer fun that

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