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France

Kimberly Chrisman-Campbell

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The French Revolution abolished the rigid dress etiquette and bureaucracy of the ancien régime fashion industry. Napoleon’s campaigns inspired fashions with soldierly details and created a vogue for exotic accessories. His imperial court ensured the survival of French luxury goods industries, while promoting a more modern silhouette. Napoleon encouraged pre-Revolutionary tastes for classical Greek and Roman styles, to glorify his own reign. The restoration of the Bourbon monarchy and the Romantic

Fascist and Nazi Dress

Irene Guenther

Source: The Berg Companion to Fashion 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Such reactionary, anti-Semitic, and rabidly nationalistic messages were repeated on countless occasions throughout the 1920s and early 1930s, so that by the time the Nazi Party came to power in 1933 the argument was clear. Only German clothing, specifically Aryan-designed and manufactured, was good enough for females in the Third Reich. Racially appropriate clothing depended upon the elimination of French and, especially, Jewish influences from the German fashion industry.

Germany

Irene Guenther

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

German dress in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries was closely linked to French–German relations. Critics disapproved of affluent German women’s fondness for French styles. During the Napoleonic wars, German rural folk dress often featured prominently at national festivals, manifesting patriotism. Ironically, it was with the French occupation during this time that German fragmentation consolidated, bringing a sense of “Germanness.” Industrialization occurred rapidly in the German states. Afte

Italy

Elisabetta Merlo and Francesca Polese

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

If we use the expression Italian fashion to indicate the production of garments and accessories that are marked by distinctive and unique features universally associated with Italian culture and identity, then such a phenomenon appears only well after the political unification of the country (1861) and indeed is barely discernible prior to World War II. Moreover, even once the creations of Italian couturiers became celebrated in international markets beginning in the 1950s, Italy’s fashion scene

Introduction

Eugenia Paulicelli

Source: Fashion Under Fascism. Beyond the Black Shirt 2004

Book chapter

Italy is commonly credited, especially abroad and by foreign travellers, as being the cradle of an almost inborn sense of aesthetics, good taste and beauty that permeates the nation’s art, fashion, design and food.See Tra cultura italiana e “Made in Italy”: Immagine e identità dell’Italia di oggi all’estero, Proceedings of the Conference organized by the Assessorato alla cultura of the Provincia di Bologna, Bologna, March 3–4, 2000; StephenGundle, “Il bel paese: Art, beauty and the cult of appear

Fashion, Gender and Power in Interwar Italy

Eugenia Paulicelli

Source: Fashion Under Fascism. Beyond the Black Shirt 2004

Book chapter

An Istituto Luce documentary entitled La Grande adunata delle forze femminili (Great parade of female forces) provides me with an appropriate starting point to illustrate the ambivalent policy of the fascist regime towards the roles and images of women.The Cinegiornale Luce of the rally is a 25-minute documentary held at the Istituto Luce Archive in Cinecittà, Rome. It also offers an interesting link to fashion, to the policy that governed it and to political culture during the fascist regime. Th

Disciplining the Body, Language and Style

Eugenia Paulicelli

Source: Fashion Under Fascism. Beyond the Black Shirt 2004

Book chapter

By way of Cesare Meano’s Commentario dizionario italiano della moda (Commentary and Italian dictionary of fashion), we can see how the fascist regime’s policy on fashion worked towards achieving one of its main diktats, the purging of the Italian language of words and expressions of foreign and dialect provenance. This was a policy that had an immediate impact in the fashion world whose specialized language, used both by the people working in the field and by the public, was replete with French t

Dress, Style and the National Brand

Eugenia Paulicelli

Source: Fashion Under Fascism. Beyond the Black Shirt 2004

Book chapter

According to the ENM, the Commentario aimed to establish a national tradition in fashion and to define its relations with high and popular culture, economics and the disciplines of style and language. Therefore, Meano’s text was in line with the general fascist project of initiating a process that would eventually lead to the “emancipation of Italy.” What are the implications of a term such as “emancipation” in the context of politics and the culture of fashion? First of all, we must say that the

Nationalizing the Fashion Industry?

Eugenia Paulicelli

Source: Fashion Under Fascism. Beyond the Black Shirt 2004

Book chapter

The textile industry played a major role in the Italian economy during its phase of modernization in the two decades between 1920 and 1940. In this, Italy very much followed the capitalist model common to other European countries and the USA.On the topic of women and labor in fascist Italy see PerryR.Willson, The Clockwork Factory: Women and Work in Fascist Italy, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1993. The study focuses on a case study of a group of northern working-class women employed in the engineerin

Conclusion

Eugenia Paulicelli

Source: Fashion Under Fascism. Beyond the Black Shirt 2004

Book chapter

By way of conclusion, I would like to recall a scene from Federico Fellini’s Amarcord. Here the character of Titta’s father is cautiously kept at home by his wife while a massive gathering of town citizens celebrates a visit by the Duce. The wife fears that had her husband, an anti-fascist, gone to the gathering, as he desired, he would not have resisted the temptation of publicly manifesting his political allegiance and would have got into trouble with the authorities, something which happens an

Peeking Under the Black Shirt: Italian Fascism’s Disembodied Bodies

Simonetta Falasca–Zamponi

Source: Fashioning the Body Politic. Dress, Gender, Citizenship 2002

Book chapter

In 1914 Giacomo Balla, one of the central participants of the Futurist artistic movement, proposed the creation of a Futurist suit. Described as anti-neutral in a manifesto issued on 11 September the suit, with the colours of the Italian flag – red, white and green – was supposed to counter the notorious lassitude of Italians and instead incite them to an active life of high energy.For the manifesto, see Crispolti (1987). The Futurist suit represented a sign of the new, a solicitation to fantasy

Camisas Nuevas: Style and Uniformity in the Falange Española 1933–43

Mary Vincent

Source: Fashioning the Body Politic. Dress, Gender, Citizenship 2002

Book chapter

This blue shirt was to become crucial to the party’s identity. Yet, this clothing of the Falange – so dramatic in the visual evidence of the period – goes almost unmentioned in historical studies.This reflects a more general lack of attention; Graham and Labanyi (1995) has nothing on dress or fashion while Rodgers (1999) has a single entry. Adopting a shirt as party or militia uniform was, of course, a self-conscious homage to Italian fascism (Pemartín 1941: 44–5). It meant action: wearing that s

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