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Men in Skirts

Fruzsina Bekefi

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Article

The male skirt has evolved throughout fashion history. From a traditional form of dress worn in Ancient Greece and Rome, non-bifurcated garments worn by men came to be perceived as a challenge to conventional gender norms in the West. Designers such as Jean Paul Gaultier and Vivienne Westwood have used male skirts to interpret masculinity through their designs in the latter half of the twentieth century. In the early twenty-first century, male skirts are gaining traction again.

Grace Jones

Shayla Corinne Black

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Article

Born in 1948 in Spanish Town, Jamaica, Grace Jones’s whimsical career began as a model, where she was a brash addition to international designers Yves Saint Laurent, Claude Montana, and Kenzo Takada. Grace Jones obliterated all boundaries with her incorporation of gender-bending fashions, notorious buzz-cut hairstyle, and her determination to don original and outrageous styles. Artists like Lady Gaga, Nicki Minaj, and Rihanna have all paid homage to Jones for her exuberance and eccentricity, whic

Tilda Swinton

Barbara Brownie

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Article

Scottish actor, model, and muse Tilda Swinton was born in London in 1960. After graduating from Cambridge she began a career acting on stage, and later in film, winning an Academy Award for her performance in Michael Clayton. She has played muse to fashion designers and artists alike, collaborating on a collection for Viktor & Rolf (2003) and starring in a short film by fashion designer Hussein Chalayan (Absent Present, 2005). In recent years she has been the face of campaigns for designers inclu

Pink

Emma Davenport

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Article

Associated with cultural symbols of affection and sensuality, the color pink has often been used to depict and challenge gender identities. On the catwalk, pink has appeared in the work of a variety of designers including Versace, Chanel, Stella McCartney, and John Richmond. From pastel shades to dazzling brights, pink has been a frequent trend across all seasons, whether used to create a splash of warmth in the winter or a spot of coolness in the summer. Featured both in womenswear and menswear,

Vivienne Westwood, “Anglomania,” Fall/Winter 1993–1994

Hayley-Jane Edwards-Dujardin

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Article

From being queen of punk in the mid-1970s, Vivienne Westwood slightly moved, from the 1980s, to being a supporter of British fashion’s establishment. Inspired by traditional craftsmanship and eighteenth-century art, the designer has since infused her collections with historicism. With her fall/winter 1993–1994 “Anglomania” show, Vivienne Westwood epitomized her interest in English and Scottish traditions while mingling masculine tailoring with outrageously feminine forms. Featuring laced bodices,

Photography in Fashion Advertising since 1970

Paul Jobling

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Article

Photography began to make inroads into advertising—including fashion publicity—by the start of the twentieth century following the evolution of the halftone process in the 1880s. By the 1930s the shift toward photographic methods became more pronounced in advertising, though in fashion publicity line illustrations remained the preferred medium. These could be reproduced more easily (especially when it came to color) but also, given that the visual quality of halftones on newsprint could be somewh

Debbie Harry

Stephanie Kramer

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Article

The veritable godmother of new wave music, Debbie Harry’s impact on the world of fashion is perhaps tantamount to her musical legacy. The lead singer of pioneering band Blondie, Harry brought a unique sense of glamour and sophistication to New York’s punk scene that emerged within the city’s seedy Bowery neighborhood in the 1970s. A female performer immersed in the primarily male environment of the legendary rock venue CBGB, Harry’s trailblazing musical persona was a paradoxical combination of el

Kim Gordon

Stephanie Kramer

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Article

As the sole female member of the pioneering New York alternative rock band, Sonic Youth, Kim Gordon’s personal style emerged out of her desire to perform on the same physical level as her male band mates, while simultaneously conveying her unique female perspective. Upon forming Sonic Youth in 1981 with musician and future husband Thurston Moore, Gordon’s style transformed into a preppy-girl-meets-tomboy fashion aesthetic. Countless designers, ranging from Marc Jacobs to Kate and Laura Mulleavy o

Fetish

Frenchy Lunning

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Article

This article discusses the origins and history of fetish fashions (and gives an explanation of forms and functions) from the late nineteenth century to the early twenty-first century. Beginning with late nineteenth-century Paris, when these forms came into play, it tracks the development through modernist culture and into the postmodern culture of the late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries, noting the similar cultural conditions of gender instabilities and roles. It explains how fetish f

Shoulder Pads

Jennifer Mower

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Article

The 1940s and 1980s were two style periods where traditional gender roles were challenged as women entered or returned to the workforce in greater numbers than in the preceding years. In both periods, shoulder pads served as a visual representation of the changes to Euro-American society and culture. In the 1980s the padded look was seen on the runway in collections by postmodern designers like Thierry Mugler, Yves Saint Laurent, Claude Montana, and Giorgio Armani, who appeared to sometimes look

Bibliographic guide

In academic literature, the words “sex” and “gender” have specific meanings that are interchangeable in popular usage. To the scholar, “sex” is used to denote biological categories (male, female); “gender” is used for distinctions in role, appearance, and behavior that are cultural in origin, but stemming from an individual’s sex (masculinity and femininity). In practice, these classifications are more complex; recent scholarship has begun to take into consideration the fact that biological sex i

Bibliographic guide

]Introductory texts on world religions are numerous and generally offer a selection of definitions—from the classic to more contemporary approaches that attempt to embrace all religions under a problematical single all-encompassing definition. In the study of religion, theoretical frameworks vary from the sociological, psychological, and anthropological to the neurophysiological; there are also those from studies in religion. Scholars of religion Willard G. Oxtoby and Alan F. Segal, in A Concise

Keep Smiling Through: Good Health and Natural Beauty

Geraldine Howell

Source: Wartime Fashion. From Haute Couture to Homemade, 1939–1945 2012

Book chapter

Conclusion

Geraldine Howell

Source: Wartime Fashion. From Haute Couture to Homemade, 1939–1945 2012

Book chapter

Fashion and the Time of Modern Femininity

Ilya Parkins

Source: Poiret, Dior and Schiaparelli. Fashion, Femininity and Modernity 2012

Book chapter

Peter Osborne asks, ‘What kind of time does modernity inscribe?’Osborne, The Politics of Time, p. 5. His book-length answer is foundational in a small but crucial body of literature about the temporal character of modernity. This literature establishes that the basic challenge of modern temporal consciousness is its reflexivity: modernity becomes the first era equipped to recognize itself as an era, and to distinguish itself from earlier eras—the past—while opening toward the future.In discussing

Paul Poiret: Classic and New in the Struggle for Designer Mastery

Ilya Parkins

Source: Poiret, Dior and Schiaparelli. Fashion, Femininity and Modernity 2012

Book chapter

In a meditation on the accumulation of symbolic capital in the fields of cultural production, Bourdieu, who views fashion as one among many such fields, explains that the production of time is central to the work of distinguishing the artists: ‘To “make one’s name” (faire date) means making one’s mark, achieving recognition (in both senses) of one’s difference from other producers; at the same time, it means creating a new position beyond the positions presently occupied, ahead of them, in the av

Elsa Schiaparelli: Glamour, Privacy and Timelessness

Ilya Parkins

Source: Poiret, Dior and Schiaparelli. Fashion, Femininity and Modernity 2012

Book chapter

The opening lines of Schiaparelli’s 1954 autobiography, Shocking Life, are curious. Referring to herself in the third person, as she does intermittently throughout the text, Schiaparelli writes, ‘I merely know Schiap by hearsay. I have only seen her in a mirror.’ElsaSchiaparelli, Shocking Life (1954; reprint, V&A Publications, 2007), p. vii. Here, with surprising bluntness, she sets herself up as someone who is ‘split’, having a rich inner life characterized by multiple visions of self.For a tho

Christian Dior: Nostalgia and the Economy of Feminine Beauty

Ilya Parkins

Source: Poiret, Dior and Schiaparelli. Fashion, Femininity and Modernity 2012

Book chapter

Dior’s initial stylistic ‘innovation’, though, had a complex temporal logic. As the strong reactions to it—both favourable and unfavourable—testified, it undeniably represented a return of a much older, if not precisely historically definable, silhouette. Its temporality was captured in an apparent contradiction: embraced as ‘revolutionary’, the New Look’s groundbreaking quality derived from its unabashed reclaiming of what might be read as a more conservative, older ideal of feminine beauty. Jus

Subcultural Body Style

Therèsa M. Winge

Source: Body Style 2012

Book chapter

While it may seem contrary to the individualistic nature of subcultures, these groups have style guidelines expected by members. Subcultural groups subtly and visually communicate acceptable dress and styles to current and future members, as well as to outsiders and posers (i.e., individuals who purposefully mimic subcultural dress). Accordingly, Ted Polhemus and Lynn Proctor (1978) state: The dress code of a social group prescribes limits, not absolute uniformity. To suggest that social identity

Yohji Yamamoto

Bonnie English

Source: Japanese Fashion Designers. The Work and Influence of Issey Miyake, Yohji Yamamoto and Rei Kawakubo 2011

Book chapter

Yamamoto and Kawakubo brought the beauty of poverty to the most glamorous stage of the world—the catwalks of Paris. In their 1981 joint collection, they paraded garments which symbolized neediness, destitution and hardship—clothing that appeared to have been picked up from rag-bags. They were entirely black in colour and irregular in shape, with oddly positioned pockets and fastenings. Their size appeared voluminous, as if the space between the external garment and the body had been exaggerated,

Rei Kawakubo and Comme des Garçons

Bonnie English

Source: Japanese Fashion Designers. The Work and Influence of Issey Miyake, Yohji Yamamoto and Rei Kawakubo 2011

Book chapter

Vera Mackie (2003: 144)… women [in Japan] were condemned to be ‘mothers’ or ‘whores’.

The Limits of Jeans in Kannur, Kerala

Daniel Miller

Source: Global Denim 2011

Book chapter

Within the context of a study of global denim, South Asia is significant in representing perhaps the only remaining major region of the world where the wearing of jeans remains relatively uncommon. No one place can stand for South Asia, but an advantage of Kannur, a town in northern Kerala, is that at least for that state, it represents in the minds of its inhabitants, a clear position midway between the cosmopolitanism of the metropolis and the conservatism of the countryside. As such, many peop

Book chapter

Such subtleties can speak volumes. As John Berger (1972) has established, it is at the level of representation that the ‘normal’ position of women is established, controlled and managed, since seeing repeated images which show the same patterns of behaviour come to define our sense of how things ‘should be’. Thus, such images or representations are the way in which we give meaning and order to the world (see Hall 1997). In an analysis which centres on the female nude in the historical trajectory

Spectacle and Sexuality: Music, Clothes and Queer Bodies

Janice Miller

Source: Fashion and Music 2011

Book chapter

In a band which might be understood to have a close relation to the emo subculture, whether technically part of it or not a creative focus on notions of death and deathliness would seem wholly appropriate. Growing partly out of the American punk scene of the 1990s and partly also a substrata of goth, emo shares similar ‘primary values … expressed through visually perceptible aspects of personal style: dress, coiffure, jewelry and tattoos and other bodily modifications. Goths are determined to fac

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