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The Growth of Chinese Textile and Apparel Industries: Is It Just an Illustration of Modernization?

Jianhua Zhao

Source: The Chinese Fashion Industry. An Ethnographic Approach 2013

Book chapter

The textile and apparel industries are of vital importance to the Chinese economy, even though they are often regarded as “sunset industries” in developed countries such as the United States. These industries provide fabric and clothing to meet the basic needs of a population of 1.3 billion people, employ about 19 million workers,The number is reportedly over one hundred million if those employed in supporting industries, such as the cotton growers, are included. These numbers are estimates by th

What Do Changing Chinese Fashions Really Tell Us?

Jianhua Zhao

Source: The Chinese Fashion Industry. An Ethnographic Approach 2013

Book chapter

We are modern not only because we have achieved this status historically, but because we have developed consciousness of our historical depths and trajectories, as also our historical transcendence of the traditional.

Designing a National Style: The Tangzhuang Phenomenon

Jianhua Zhao

Source: The Chinese Fashion Industry. An Ethnographic Approach 2013

Book chapter

On October 21, 2001, the last day of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) Summit, then-Chinese president Jiang Zemin along with other Asia-Pacific heads of state donned brightly colored Chinese silk jackets and matching white silk shirts and black pants or skirts, and posed in front of the world media (Figure 4.1).A Chinese source reported that 3,000 journalists from around the world congregated in Shanghai to cover this event (Beijing qingnianbao 10/15/2001). The jacket soon became known

Making Clothes for International Markets: A Clothing Perspective on Globalization

Jianhua Zhao

Source: The Chinese Fashion Industry. An Ethnographic Approach 2013

Book chapter

The winter of 2005 was a joyful time for Pittsburgh Steelers’ fans, because their team did the almost impossible. It went into the postseason as a wild card team and upset all the stronger teams on the road and was on its way to win the Super Bowl. The joy spread far beyond Pittsburgh and the United States. Mr. Zeng Gang, a contact and friend of mine who lives in Shanghai, China, and works in the business of international garment trade, was so excited for me that he sent me a Steelers jersey via

Conclusion: Clothing, Modernization, and Globalization

Jianhua Zhao

Source: The Chinese Fashion Industry. An Ethnographic Approach 2013

Book chapter

When the Chinese Communist Party decided to reform the Chinese economy in 1978, it started a fundamental shift in China’s economic structure from a state-owned and state-run planned economy to one that is composed of increasing shares of privately owned and foreign-owned sectors. China’s apparel industry is particularly illustrative of this trend. Since the early 1990s, China’s apparel industry has been dominated by non-state-owned sectors. Such a shift in China’s economic structure has created a

Fans, Music, Clothes and Consumption

Janice Miller

Source: Fashion and Music 2011

Book chapter

For many writers who focus on fandom, this relationship is made manifest in the greater part by the engagement of fans with consumption and consumer culture. Perhaps even more accurately, it is through patterns of consumption that fan identities are marked out and made visible (see for example Sandvoss 2005; Hills 2002; Jenkins 1992; Toynbee 2006). This, therefore, suggests that contemporary notions of fandom may share a link to industrialized economies and thus to the cultures of consumerism whi

Fashion under Socialism

Djurdja Bartlett

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The relationship between dress and Socialism started in Soviet Russia following the 1917 Communist Revolution. When Soviet-style Socialism was introduced in East Europe in 1948, dress became an important ideological and practical issue in the countries under Soviet political control. However, the styles of garments, and the discourses in which they were embedded, were not homogeneous in the Soviet Union and the East European countries during the seventy-two years of Communist rule. Both similarit

Belgium

Karlijn Bronselaer

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Belgium played a vital role in the industrialization of the European textile industry. Belgian society changed very quickly due to industrialization during the first half of the nineteenth century. From about the 1820s on the fashionable silhouette in West Europe was the hourglass. Although the average Belgian had neither time nor money for fashion, improved production methods and sewing machines made corsets more affordable. Later, the Art Nouveau or Jugendstil movement (ca. 1890–1920), with its

Sweden

Ulla Brück

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Historically there are several indications of an urge to follow fashion in Sweden, although changes were slow. During the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries medieval and Renaissance traits still dominated. In the eighteenth century, two-piece dresses for women and breeches and jackets for men became more common. Sweden has numerous varieties of provincial folk dress. Some consider these to be historic items, with strong local identification, while others see them as inventions of nineteenth-cent

Aesthetic Dress

Oriole Cullen

Source: The Berg Companion to Fashion 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Seven years ago certain ladies delighted to display themselves at public gatherings in what are called aesthetic dresses; in some cases the costumes were pretty enough, in others they seemed to rival each other in ugliness of form and oddity of color (p. 256).

Ready-to-Wear

Jean L. Druesedow

Source: The Berg Companion to Fashion 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Speculative production began in antiquity with garments and accessories traded internationally. For example, ready-to-wear was part of ancient Babylonian business life as recorded on clay tablets dating from 1400 to 1200 B.C.E. A merchant there wrote to his associates to instruct them to open his warehouse, take out garments from his sealed chests and from the chests of garments returned to him by another merchant. He instructed them to “Write your tablets as follows: they have taken so-and-so ma

North American Silk Industry

Jacqueline Field

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada 2010

Encyclopedia entry

By the early twentieth century, the U.S. silk industry was the largest in the world. It transformed silk, a historically scarce and expensive luxury, into a widely available and affordable fabric. Silk materials filtered into almost every kind of female dress, many articles of male dress, and all sorts of trimmings and accessories. An array of different silks—plain, patterned, colorful, lustrous, soft, rustling, light, heavy—to one degree or another brought the visual aesthetic and sensuous pleas

Germany

Irene Guenther

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

German dress in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries was closely linked to French–German relations. Critics disapproved of affluent German women’s fondness for French styles. During the Napoleonic wars, German rural folk dress often featured prominently at national festivals, manifesting patriotism. Ironically, it was with the French occupation during this time that German fragmentation consolidated, bringing a sense of “Germanness.” Industrialization occurred rapidly in the German states. Afte

The Apparel Industry

Jan Hilger

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Before the mid-nineteenth century garments were produced manually. With the invention of sewing machines, mass manufacturing became possible. In just over 160 years, business complexity increased from one-man companies, dominated by artisan tailors, to multinational corporations. In Europe and in the United States the first apparel factories following the Fordist model were established. A new unskilled workforce replaced skilled craftsmen. With growing distance from the consumer and decreasing in

Secondhand Clothing

Heike Jenss

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The term secondhand clothing connotes garments that enter a second or new circle of use after they have been worn or used by a previous owner. The handing down, sale, and reuse of previously worn garments have been common practices throughout the history of dress. Even into the twentieth century, garments were expensive goods and often a family investment that was passed on to the next generation or traded and exchanged for other goods. With the wider accessibility of fashion and the acceleration

The Textile Industry

Sara J. Kadolph and Sara B. Marcketti

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Any overview of the textile industry in the United States and Canada will focus primarily on the United States until the latter part of the nineteenth century, as Canada and its textile production were still controlled by Britain until that time. Textile manufacture was one of the first mechanized industries to incorporate outwork production into its manufacturing procedures. An industry of hand-produced lace existed prior to the introduction of English lace machines in Ipswich, Massachusetts, in

The Fashion Industry

Yuniya Kawamura

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Global Perspectives 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The origin of garment making is traceable to when humans started covering their bodies. Western clothes changed from the unconstructed dress of the ancient Mediterranean world to the more structured garments of the late Middle Ages. Western apparel became more intricate, requiring increasingly specialized skills for its construction. Before the Industrial Revolution that began in England in the latter half of the eighteenth century, making clothes was an arduous task, and quality garments were an

Class, Work, and Dress

Alexandra Kim

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

During the nineteenth century, clothing in West Europe was inextricably linked to a person’s class and occupation. Dress was constantly used to determine a person’s social status. Although there were obvious variations in occupational dress across the Continent, a worker’s clothing—whether in the countryside or the city—would have clearly indicated his or her place in the social hierarchy. Changing work patterns, a growing informality, and the fragmentation of the class structure in the twentieth

Textile Manufacture in Japan

Desiree Koslin

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The earliest textile survivals in Japan date to the seventh and eighth centuries. Chinese influences reached Japan in the early eighth century, and from that time on, fine colorful silks were woven for the imperial court in the Nishijin quarters of the capital. Four major natural fibers were traditionally used: hemp, ramie, cotton, and silk. The display and use of textiles have been of great social and economic importance in Japanese culture. A unique set of circumstances enabled meteoric develop

New Zealand Textiles and Apparel Sectors

R. M. Laing and C. A. Wilson

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Development of the textile and apparel sectors in New Zealand can be traced from settler society to the early twenty-first century, influenced by geography, communication, trade policies and agreements, government assistance, and fashion and technical developments of Western Europe and the United States. During this period there were times of dependence, then relative self-sufficiency in the late nineteenth and much of the early twentieth century. The change to greater dependency on imports durin

Class

Elizabeth D. Lowe

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada 2010

Encyclopedia entry

To understand the current relationships between class and dress in the United States and Canada, it is necessary to review the most important theories that have been put forth about class and dress in Western Europe. There are nearly as many opinions about the nature of class as there are people. These opinions vary widely, ranging from, “class explains everything” to “it no longer exists.” To many, social class has become just a metaphor for varied access to resources, a way to describe the unev

Finland

Bo Lönnqvist

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Early nineteenth-century Finnish fashion was influenced by Stockholm, capital of Finland and Sweden since the thirteenth century. In the 1790s the Finnish upper classes wore styles influenced by rococo and neoclassicism, known as Gustavian after Gustavus III of Sweden. After the war of 1808–1809 Finland was separated from Sweden and annexed to the Russian Empire as a grand duchy until Finnish independence in 1917. A new bourgeois class developed. Male dress lost its extravagance, symbolizing bure

Economies and Cultures of Dress

Margaret Maynard

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The economic and cultural history of dress in Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific is extraordinarily complex and varied. The region spans highly industrialized nations, communities based on subsistence living, and intermediary economies. Shifts in cultural attitudes toward dress and the body and alteration to economies over time have been accentuated by trade with Europe, the United States, and Asia. Clothing demarcating gender and age differences must be acknowledged, as well as cross-cultur

Hungary: Urban Dress up to 1948

Katalin Medvedev

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Hungary remained feudalist until the second half of the nineteenth century, delaying the growth of Hungarian urban fashion. Hungary is perhaps best known for colorful ethnic styles, the most renowned being male gala dress (díszmagyar). However, the elite kept abreast of European trends. In the first half of the nineteenth century, Hungary, within the Hapsburg Empire, was predominantly agricultural; fashionable town dress was mostly German-inspired. Pest and Buda—separate cities until 1873—had dis

Italy

Elisabetta Merlo and Francesca Polese

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

If we use the expression Italian fashion to indicate the production of garments and accessories that are marked by distinctive and unique features universally associated with Italian culture and identity, then such a phenomenon appears only well after the political unification of the country (1861) and indeed is barely discernible prior to World War II. Moreover, even once the creations of Italian couturiers became celebrated in international markets beginning in the 1950s, Italy’s fashion scene

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