Results: Text (41) Images (0)

You searched for

Modify your search terms or add filters

Filtered by

Sort by
Results per page
Results showing
1 - 25 of 41 (2 pages)
    Page 1 of 2
The Wool Industry in Australia

Prudence Black and Anne Farren

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

That the wealth of Australia rode “on the sheep’s back” is a well-known expression. In particular, it has been Merino wool (a thick fine fleece suited to weaving into quality fabric) for the international and increasingly global clothing market that has been Australia’s most significant product. The Merino sheep has been selectively bred for over two hundred years and is recognized worldwide for its uniformly fine and soft fibers. While Australia is home to only a small proportion of the world’s

Ethical Fashion and Ecofashion

Sandy Black

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Global Perspectives 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Although the fashion industry is fast-moving and often dismissed as frivolous, it represents one of the major global economic players. Fashion is one of the few remaining craft-based industries, relying on skilled manual labour for manufacturing across its wide spectrum of levels, which raises particular issues for production. There is an urgent need to reconcile ethical, environmental, social, and personal agendas through future product development and manufacturing cycles in the fashion industr

Dress Reforms of the Early Twentieth Century in Turkey, Iran, and Afghanistan

Derek Bryce

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

During the 1920s and 1930s, three states—Turkey, Iran, and Afghanistan—embarked on a series of wide-ranging programmatic reforms designed to transform their respective societies fundamentally. Often called “modernization from above” because of their association with authoritarian elites, these reforms attempted to impose changes in state, economic, and sociocultural spheres that favored broadly Western models and to replace or restrict the practice of corresponding traditional, indigenous, or Isl

Lesbian and Gay Dress

Shaun Cole

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Although same-sex sexual activity has been occurring at least as long as the human race has been recording social activity, it was not until the late nineteenth century that terminology based on sexual identity replaced definitions and descriptions of sexual acts. Psychiatrists, sexologists, and human rights campaigners such as Richard von Krafft-Ebing, Karl Heinrich Ulrichs, and Karl Maria Kertbeny developed notions that same-sex attraction was related to identity and conceived terms such as urn

The Garment Industry and Retailing in Canada

Cynthia Cooper

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The apparel industry is the tenth-largest manufacturing sector in Canada. Apparel is manufactured in all provinces and territories. T. Eaton Company was a department store that operated from 1869 to 1999 and became a household name in Canada as a mail order company. As one of the early large manufacturers, it led the way in vertical integration. Eaton’s introduced its first mail order catalog in 1884, a thirty-two-page booklet listing department store merchandise. While a wide variety of merchand

Swimwear, Surfwear, and the Bronzed Body in Australia

Jennifer Craik

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

For many people, Australia is synonymous with the dream of sun, surf, and sand. Australia is perceived as a land of leisure and lounging around—preferably by the water. In order to do this, Australians dress in a casual way in swimsuits, surfwear, or leisure wear such as tank tops (sleeveless, low-necked tops) or T-shirts, shorts, and thongs (rubber sandals). Sunhats are, of course, obligatory in the Australian climate if skin cancer is to be avoided. Accordingly, popular representations of this

Textile and Apparel Industries at the Turn of the Millennium

Kitty G. Dickerson

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Behind the runway shows and other glitz and glamour of the fashion industry are the textile and apparel firms that churn out the garments and other textile products for U.S. consumers. These are companies that have to deal with serious realities of profit and survival in an intensely competitive environment. Just as fashions are transformed over the years with hemlines that rise and fall and silhouettes that change, the industries and companies that produce the fashions have been completely trans

Jews in the Melbourne Garment Trade

Anna Epstein

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

For a large part of the twentieth century the garment trade was an important industry in the southern Australian state of Victoria. Since clothing was a big part of the country’s manufacturing, the Jews of the garment trade made a large contribution to Australia’s economy. This multifaceted industry had its own economic and social history, gorgeous products, and camaraderie and color at its heart, Flinders Lane. It gave rise to the individualism, flair, entrepreneurial spirit, and sheer fun that

Conventional Work Dress

Colleen Gau

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Global Perspectives 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Historically, climate and work environments are primary to the selection and production of work clothing, but safety concerns, economic and business climates, fashion, and ethics find a place in the clothing narrative of Western civilizations. As crops and animals were domesticated, empires emerged in the Nile and Mediterranean regions, and the classification of skill groups became more distinct. Animal skins were replaced by woven garments by the time people had settled into communities. Herding

Austria

Irene Guenther

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Austria’s capital, Vienna, has been a political and cultural center, from which came a number of distinctive dress styles that influenced the rest of Europe. Among these are the dance dress for the waltz craze of the 1840s, as well as straw bonnets, which originated as peasant dress but were adopted as middle-class fashion, as was also the dirndl, which is the regional folk dress. As Austria was one of the great powers of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, Austrian dress has also been

Secondhand Clothing

Karen Tranberg Hansen

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Global Perspectives 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Secondhand clothing constitutes a global market of commerce and consumption that has a long but changing history with complex links to garment production, tailoring, and couture. In Europe and North America, secondhand clothing was an important source of clothing well into the nineteenth century, until mass production and growing prosperity enabled more and more people to purchase brand-new rather than previously worn garments. During Europe’s imperial expansion, the trade in secondhand clothing

Jewish Dress in Central and Southwest Asia and the Diaspora

Esther Juhasz

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Jewish dress has been shaped by the Jewish code of law, halacha, and various types of contacts with other religions and cultures. The halacha deals in detail with the desired conduct of a Jew in everyday life, including explicit rulings and recommended attitudes on dress. No specific dress was ever mandated by Jewish law, and as a result no universal Jewish dress evolved. Some common principles are recognizable in a variety of styles of Jewish dress. In some places Jews played an active role in t

The Textile Industry

Sara J. Kadolph and Sara B. Marcketti

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Any overview of the textile industry in the United States and Canada will focus primarily on the United States until the latter part of the nineteenth century, as Canada and its textile production were still controlled by Britain until that time. Textile manufacture was one of the first mechanized industries to incorporate outwork production into its manufacturing procedures. An industry of hand-produced lace existed prior to the introduction of English lace machines in Ipswich, Massachusetts, in

The Social Significance of Institutional Dress in New Zealand

Bronwyn Labrum

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

As a settler colony, New Zealand inherited its range of institutions, their modes of operation, and their day-to-day practices from Britain. This legacy included the forms of institutional dress worn by institutional staff and residents, although they were modified to suit the distinctive economic, political, and cultural context that developed in the South Pacific nation. Often is it easier to find out about the experiences of staff whose activities appear in annual reports and institutional arc

New Zealand Textiles and Apparel Sectors

R. M. Laing and C. A. Wilson

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Development of the textile and apparel sectors in New Zealand can be traced from settler society to the early twenty-first century, influenced by geography, communication, trade policies and agreements, government assistance, and fashion and technical developments of Western Europe and the United States. During this period there were times of dependence, then relative self-sufficiency in the late nineteenth and much of the early twentieth century. The change to greater dependency on imports durin

Aging

Nora M. MacDonald

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Clothing serves as a source of ego support, self-image enhancement, social acceptability, and personality expression throughout a person’s life. Problems occur, however, when appropriate clothing is not available or marketed to certain segments of the population, particularly older persons and those with a disability. Design problems may relate to the fit, cut, function, and appropriateness of the item(s), while marketing problems may relate to communicating the product(s) to the consumer. Fashio

Cosmetics and Skin Care

Brian Moeran and Lise Skov

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Within the area of dress, defined as body supplements and body modification according to Joanne Eicher’s terminology, cosmetics and skin care are a subgroup of nonpermanent body modifications. Admittedly, the issue of permanence is relative; antiwrinkle cream, for example, is intended to have an enduring effect. Also, in some cases, permanent and nonpermanent treatments are interchangeable; skin bleaching or tattoos can replace makeup, and hair removal can be temporary or permanent.

Muslim Dress and the Head-Scarf Debate

Annelies Moors

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Debates about the presence of students wearing head scarves in public schools in West Europe started in the late 1980s; about a decade later, the employment of women wearing head scarves also became the focus of attention. These debates need to be seen within a context in which a new generation of Muslims (often second-generation migrants) started to enter the educational system and then the labor market. As new Muslim citizens, these young men and women have increasingly become socially and poli

The Textile Industry

Michiel Scheffer

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The textile industry covers the sequence of production stages, starting from fibers through clothing assembly. Europe’s textile industry has been significant in both economic and cultural history. It was the first sector to industrialize and was therefore at the core of the pervasive economic and social changes that took place in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. For more than a century, the advantages of large-scale cloth production made West Europe a world leader in this trade, but since

Laws of Differentiation

Irvin Cemil Schick

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

A significant development in the history of Islamic dress is a series of laws that required non-Muslims living within Islamic states to wear distinguishing clothing. These are generally known as laws of differentiation (ghiyar). They were mainly aimed at the so-called dhimmi, or tolerated non-Muslim subjects, namely, Jews, Christians, and Zoroastrians. The term dhimmi does not include other, polytheistic groups, such as Hindus.

Sumptuary Laws

Irvin Cemil Schick

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Sumptuary laws (from Latin sumptuariae leges) are rules that attempt to regulate people’s habits of (luxury) consumption with respect to clothing, food, furniture, housing, and so forth. While they generally have economic underpinnings, they have also historically been used to regulate and reinforce social hierarchies and morals through restrictions on the purchase and display of such luxuries. The following excerpt from an Ottoman imperial edict issued in 1824 makes this clear: Whereas the popul

The Garment Industry and Retailing in the United States

Rob Schorman

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The U.S. garment industry has followed a distinctive path that at various times has seemed to position it in the vanguard of industrial development and at other times as a stubborn holdout of archaic production methods. Some characteristics of the industry have remained stable from the start: its dependence on a dense web of subcontractors arrayed in relatively small units of production, its basic workflow organization, its extreme sensitivity to consumer preferences, and its resistance to automa

The Geographic and Cultural Regions

Lise Skov

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Because there are no clear geographical borders between Europe and Asia, or East and West Europe, definitions of these regions have shifted historically. Divisions are essentially political, accentuated by profound changes following the end of the Cold War. Cultural diversity is a European characteristic, impacting significantly on dress and the fashion industry in the twentieth century. The clothing materials native to West Europe are wool, linen, fur, and leather. Until the Middle Ages all clot

Ethics and Industry

Lise Skov

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The question of ethics is about determining concepts of right and wrong human action. There are a number of ethical controversies in relation to the industries that dress the visible self, especially the clothing, shoes, accessories, and skin-care industries. The five main areas of controversy are, first, representations of idealized gender and body images; second, fakes and counterfeits of branded goods; third, working conditions; fourth, environmental impact and sustainability; and fifth, anima

Fur

Lise Skov

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Fur comes from animal pelts that are chemically treated to make the leather supple and retain the hairs, which consist of guard hairs and underwool. Although furs come from many different animals, the most common in the twenty-first century are mink and fox. Fur has been appreciated for two outstanding qualities: warmth, essential in cold climates, and appearance, which accounts for its association with ostentation and prestige dressing. Comfort and durability have also made fur garments and acce

Back to top
Results showing
1 - 25 of 41 (2 pages)
Page 1 of 2