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Walter Van Beirendonck

Paula Alaszkiewicz

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Designer Biography

Artists, Celebrity and Fashion: From Wilde and Warhol to Taylor-Wood

Pamela Church Gibson

Source: Fashion and Celebrity Culture 2012

Book chapter

An installation at the Venice Biennale of 2009 set out to provide a picture of, or commentary on, the contemporary art world. But it proved, in retrospect, as problematic as trying to portray or parody fashion on film. The Dutch and Nordic pavilions were twinned that year, to display linked installations created by Michael Elmgreen and Ingar Dragset, two artists whose installation ‘The Collectors’ was intended, presumably, to illuminate the activity of that species. The Dutch Pavilion was created

Celebrity and Fashion, Past and Present

Pamela Church Gibson

Source: Fashion and Celebrity Culture 2012

Book chapter

‘Celebrity culture’ in a recognizably modern but still rudimentary form could be said to have emerged in the late eighteenth century. The period witnessed the new scientific discoveries and consequent technological developments associated with the Industrial Revolution. They would transform Western society from a predominantly rural one into one increasingly centred on urban and industrial life. Some of the new technologies also made possible the wide circulation of printed material—newspapers, b

Body and Beauty

Patrizia Calefato

Translated by Sveva Scaramuzzi

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The concept of human “race” was extended for the first time from its meaning of “lineage” or “descent” by Georges Cuvier (1769–1823) who gave it a classificatory, hierarchical meaning. During the nineteenth century, this conception led to racial biology and eugenics. Notwithstanding the researchers’ intentions, the idea of “race” constituted the basis for nineteenth- and twentieth-century racist ideologies. The idea of feminine beauty also evolved in relation to the genesis of racism. Fashion bec

The Miser’s Purse

Laura L. Camerlengo

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Miser’s purses were one of the most popular purse styles in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Crafted in myriad colors and designs, they were made for personal use, as gifts to loved ones, or for commercial sale. These purses were deeply embedded in nineteenth-century popular culture as well. The development of the purse’s form and its social and symbolic roles can be explored by relating references found in nineteenth-century literature and paintings to accounts of these accessories found

Dress in Art: Worldwide

Sandra Lee Evenson

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Global Perspectives 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Details about identity are conveyed through dress, which plays an important role in the arts worldwide. The visual arts comprise painting, sculpture, photography, printmaking, rendering, illustration, tapestry, mosaic, and masks. Visual evidence of people using dress dates to the Upper Paleolithic, forty-five thousand to ten thousand years ago; the plump stone “Venus Figures” appear to have styled hair and skirts made out of string fringe. In the visual arts dress acts as a shorthand method of co

The Novel and Dress

Clair Hughes

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The stories of Beatrix Potter would have no plots, someone remarked, if the animals had no clothes. This cannot be said of fictional characters in general, but all the same, authors do not usually send their characters naked into the world—dress can play a surprisingly important role in their narratives. The clothes described and illustrated by Potter anchor her animals to a workaday rural society. They bridge the gap between nineteenth-century reality and Potter’s version of it: a miniature worl

French Travelers Writing on Russian Dress

Raisa Marduhovna Kirsanova

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Among many French travelers who described Russia’s native attire were artists, politicians, and historians. The most popular memoirs were those of Louis-Philippe de Ségur (1753–1830), French ambassador to Russia under Catherine the Great. The count stated that in Russia, “red” (krasniy) is equivalent to “beautiful” (krasiviy), because, observing the predominance of red in peasant festive dress, he perceived it as the color of national holidays. Court painter Vigée LeBrun (1755–1842), who emigrate

Stitched and Shaped Garments

Kalyan Krishna

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. South Asia and Southeast Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Sewn garments are rarely seen in early Indian sculptures, although they were worn by attendants or foreigners. Stitched garments were allegedly introduced in India in the early Christian era, when tribes migrated from Central Asia, or through the coming of Islam. Early Buddhist literature, however, contains several references to stitched clothing. During the Gupta period (approximately 280 to 550 c.e.), fully tailored, partly stitched, and unstitched costumes were fashionable. By the late twelfth

Edith Durham, Victorian Traveler and Dress Collector in the Balkans

Philippa Mackenzie

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

In 1900 Edith Durham followed medical advice to take an annual trip. She traveled to Montenegro, beginning an involvement with the Balkan peoples that lasted the rest of her life. In the next twenty years Durham traveled widely through areas broadly comprising the former Yugoslavia. She documents her early travels in her first book, Through the Lands of the Serb (1904). She was asked to undertake relief work in Macedonia in the winter of 1903–1904. The political situation was increasingly unstabl

Ottoman Dress

Nancy Micklewright

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The Ottomans were a world power in the Mediterranean for several centuries, with their empire extending at its height from Tabriz in the east around the Arabian Peninsula, the Levant, Egypt, and across North Africa to Algiers. In Europe, they controlled much of Hungary, the Balkans, and Greece. Although it took nearly two hundred years to assemble this vast empire, their role as a world power was assured with their conquest of Constantinople in 1453. From that point until the defeat of the Ottoma

Sources of Information about Dress in Southwest Asia

Tineke Rooijakkers

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Information on dress in Southwest Asia (also referred to as the Middle East or the Near East) is derived from both primary evidence, such as actual textiles and garments or tools for textile production, and secondary evidence, which includes textual and pictographic sources. Textual sources incorporate not only written references to dress in prose or poetry but also laws, trade accounts, inventories, wedding contracts, travelogues, and so on. Depictions of dress can be found in paintings, frescoe

Turkish Costume Albums

Jennifer M. Scarce

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The expansion of the Ottoman Turkish Empire—from modest beginnings in Anatolia during the thirteenth century to control over territories spanning the Balkans, the east coast of the Mediterranean and Egypt, much of North Africa, Iraq, and Arabia by the late sixteenth to early seventeenth centuries—provoked much concern and curiosity among the European states who encountered its power. From the late fifteenth century on, Europeans visited the capital, Istanbul, and the rest of the Ottoman world in

Central and Southwest Asian Dress Studies

Gillian Vogelsang-Eastwood

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

As with many areas of academia, the study of dress is not homogeneous. Many individuals and groups throughout the world are working (and often working in isolation) in the field of Central and Southwest Asian dress. In particular, there are scholars in Iran, Turkey, and parts of the Arab world who have a vast knowledge of their regional forms of dress, but this knowledge, for various reasons, is not widely available. Ironically, although dress is one of the easiest ways to gain access to another

Al-Washsha, a Medieval Fashion Guru

Gillian Vogelsang-Eastwood

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The early medieval period in Southwest Asia was a time of change, with an increase in wealth and trade, especially via Central Asia with China, along the so-called Silk Road. In addition there was political and social stability following the establishment of the Abbasid dynasty in 749 c.e. The Abbasid caliphate flourished for two centuries before going into decline and was one of the great Muslim caliphates of the Arab Empire, known for its arts, literature, and architectural achievements, and al

Historical Evidence: China and Inner Asia

John E. Vollmer

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

A continuous written record concerning Chinese dress dates back to the fifth century b.c.e. It coincides with, and partially informs, the very extensive archaeological record for China and parts of Inner Asia that came under Chinese control at various times in history. Some of the most ancient records describe the role of appropriate dress in ensuring the efficacy of state rituals. Later, these writings would be used to promote ideals of social order and reinforce the notions of the superiority o

Fashion and Evolutionary Theories in Nineteenth-Century Greece

Artemis Yagou

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The processes of imitation and adaptation are central to understanding creativity. Human cultures evolve through a continuous exchange of ideas, beliefs, habits, and forms. The rise of a Western-type society in Greece in the nineteenth century provides an example of the interplay between different ideas. Dress and fashion in particular constitute a fertile field where such exchanges take place. Exaggerations of Western fashion, as well as in other manifestations of imitating the West, became a so

The Portrayal of Balkan Dress in Western Travel Books

Antonia Young

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Only a few Western travelers have focused specifically on the dress they encountered, and travel books generally devote a very small proportion of their texts and illustrations to clothes or national dress, often observing simply that they were “picturesque” or “colorful.” Most include at least one photograph of a woman in national dress, but without precise information. Many travel writers focused more on architecture, although this can include early dress depicted in frescoes, paintings, and th

Clothing, Class Deception, and Identity in Late Nineteenth-Century Fiction

Rosy Aindow

Source: Fashion in Fiction. Text and Clothing in Literature, Film, and Television 2009

Book chapter

Grisettes, Cocottes, and Bohèmes: Fashion and Fiction in the 1820s

Denise Amy Baxter

Source: Fashion in Fiction. Text and Clothing in Literature, Film, and Television 2009

Book chapter

Fashion Reform: Aesthetic Movement in Dress and Interiors

Marilyn Casto

Source: Fashion in Fiction. Text and Clothing in Literature, Film, and Television 2009

Book chapter

Prescribing Fashion: Dress, Politics and Gender in Sixteenth-Century Italian Conduct Literature

Elizabeth Currie

Source: Classic and Modern Writings on Fashion 2nd Edition 2009

Book chapter

In the evening, when it is customary for Florentines to go out often, they wear caps on their heads, and cloaks in the Spanish style, that is with a hood at the back. Men who wear these during the day, unless they are soldiers, are considered disreputable and shabby. In the house they wear a large beret in the winter, and either a frock-coat or a catelano; in the summer a small beret, a house-coat of cloth or gabardine from Lille. Whoever rides horses wears a cloak or some type of loose over-coat

The Medieval Aesthetic Sensibility

Umberto Eco

Source: Classic and Modern Writings on Fashion 2nd Edition 2009

Book chapter

When the Scholastics spoke about beauty they meant by this an attribute of God. The metaphysics of beauty (in Plotinus, for instance) and the theory of art were in no way related. ‘Contemporary’ man places an exaggerated value on art because he has lost the feeling for intelligible beauty which the neo-Platonists and the Medievals possessed… . Here we are dealing with a type of beauty of which Aesthetics knows nothing.E. R.Curtius, European Literature and the Latin Middle Ages, translated by Will

Novelist as Stylist, Designer as Storyteller

Sophia Errey

Source: Fashion in Fiction. Text and Clothing in Literature, Film, and Television 2009

Book chapter

Holly Golightly and the Fashioning of the Waif

Gabrielle Finnane

Source: Fashion in Fiction. Text and Clothing in Literature, Film, and Television 2009

Book chapter

In Christopher Isherwood’s 1939 novel Goodbye to Berlin, Sally Bowles is a creature of color whose clothing, which can be grubby, always has something eye-catching: “She was dressed in black silk, with a small cape over her shoulders and a little cap like a page boy’s stuck jauntily on one side of her head.” As the narrator, also called Christopher Isherwood, watches her dial a phone number he notices “her fingernails were painted emerald green, a colour unfortunately chosen for it called attenti

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