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Covering Up on the Prairies: Perceptions of Muslim Identity, Multiculturalism and Security in Canada

A. Brenda Anderson and F. Volker Greifenhagen

Source: Islamic Fashion and Anti-Fashion. New Perspectives from Europe and North America 2013

Book chapter

The Canadian mediaOur analysis is restricted to the English-language media and does not include French Canadian publications. tend to portray headcovering as a practice that is forced on women; one can never assume that it is the women’s free choice.For example, ‘The majority of women wearing face coverings are not doing so because of free will; they are doing so because some Neanderthal husband or cleric has told them it is necessary’ (Martinuk 2011; see also Bramham 2010; Kay 2010). According t

‘I Love My Prophet’: Religious Taste, Consumption and Distinction in Berlin

Synnøve Bendixsen

Source: Islamic Fashion and Anti-Fashion. New Perspectives from Europe and North America 2013

Book chapter

The majority of mosque associations and prayer rooms in Berlin were established by the so-called first-generation migrants who arrived as guest workers in Germany in the late 1960s and early 1970s. These religious organizations and places are mostly divided along ethno-national lines in terms of their participants, language of instruction and religious references. In contrast, the religious youth organization MJD was established in 1994 by eight young Muslims with various ethnic and national back

Miss Headscarf: Islamic Fashion and the Danish Media

Connie Carøe Christiansen

Source: Islamic Fashion and Anti-Fashion. New Perspectives from Europe and North America 2013

Book chapter

Whilst cultural commentators tended to downplay the aesthetic potential of the headscarf, contestants were generally more sensitive to its potential both as an item of fashion and self-cultivation. They were also conscious of the need to challenge perceptions of Muslim women through their appearance. In several of the Danish newspaper articles which featured the contest, young Muslim women in Denmark were given the opportunity to speak and to present another angle on the headscarf to that usually

Fashion and Its Discontents: The Aesthetics of Covering in the Netherlands

Annelies Moors

Source: Islamic Fashion and Anti-Fashion. New Perspectives from Europe and North America 2013

Book chapter

A convenient starting point to discuss the fashion-Islam nexus is the eight-page article ‘Hip with the Headscarf’. Appearing in 1999 in the weekend magazine of an upscale Dutch daily, Volkskrant Magazine, this article started with the observation that ‘more and more women with headscarves wear fashionable styles of dress and lots of make-up’ (Jungschleger and Riemersma 1999). Next to portraying a number of young women wearing such fashionable styles, it also presented the points of view of ‘expe

Mediating Islamic Looks

Degla Salim

Source: Islamic Fashion and Anti-Fashion. New Perspectives from Europe and North America 2013

Book chapter

The field of fashion is an industry of images (McRobbie 1998: 172). Imagery dominates the industry to such a degree that the distinction between what is really being sold, the garment or the image of the garment, has become increasingly blurry (cf. Baudrillard 1975).The image of the garment is here referred to in a double sense. Image is meant to be regarded as both a consumable photograph of the clothes and as a social ‘image’, an aura that the garment carries. When it comes to understanding the

The Clothing Dilemmas of Transylvanian Muslim Converts

Daniela Stoica

Source: Islamic Fashion and Anti-Fashion. New Perspectives from Europe and North America 2013

Book chapter

The Transylvanian city of Cluj-Napoca has lost much of the visual uniformity that dominated it during the socialist and immediate post-socialist periods. With elegant or bohemian cafeterias, stylish dining rooms and clubs, it has become a setting that stands in sharp contrast to the uniform socialist neighbourhoods created under communism. At the beginning of the summer, when the Transylvania International Film Festival animates the city with a young and diverse public, and at the beginning of au

Missionary Dress in Samoa

Prue Ahrens

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The first European Christian missionaries to establish a station in the South Pacific were members of the London Missionary Society (LMS) who arrived in Tahiti in 1797. Over the next one hundred years a number of European Christian denominations established missions there. For example, mission stations were established in Tonga by Wesleyans (1826) and Marists (1832), and in the Gilberts and Ellice Islands (now Kiribati and Tuvalu) by the LMS (1877) and the Catholic Sacred Heart Mission (1881). In

Burqini

Heather Marie Akou

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Global Perspectives 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The burqini is a full-body swimsuit that combines the terms burqa and bikini. Aheda Zanetti, an Australian designer of Lebanese descent, created the burqini in 2006 as an alternative form of dress for Muslim women serving as lifeguards in Australia. Within months it became available to the general public worldwide. Buyers have included both Muslims and non-Muslims, who wear it for reasons ranging from modesty, to protection from UV light, to enhanced athletic performance. Similar full-body swimsu

Dress in Kiribati

Petra M. Autio

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The Republic of Kiribati is a central Pacific state, which consists of thirty-three tiny atolls and reef islands scattered over a vast ocean area corresponding to one-third the size of the United States. It includes three island groups—the Gilbert, Phoenix, and Line Islands—and the island of Banaba. Apart from the Banabans, who have their own, though related, history, the Gilbert Islands chain straddling the equator is where people originally settled, and where the majority (90%) of the populatio

Swimwear, Surfwear, and the Bronzed Body in Australia

Jennifer Craik

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

For many people, Australia is synonymous with the dream of sun, surf, and sand. Australia is perceived as a land of leisure and lounging around—preferably by the water. In order to do this, Australians dress in a casual way in swimsuits, surfwear, or leisure wear such as tank tops (sleeveless, low-necked tops) or T-shirts, shorts, and thongs (rubber sandals). Sunhats are, of course, obligatory in the Australian climate if skin cancer is to be avoided. Accordingly, popular representations of this

The Māori Pari (Bodice)

Jo Diamond

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The pari is a Māori bodice of the rāranga type, worn with a piupiu (a type of fibrous skirt) and Māori jewelry by women in cultural performances including competitions, concerts, and festivals. Rāranga is a generic naming for plaited (as opposed to loom) handweaving practices undertaken mostly, though not exclusively, by Māori women. Māori performances usually occur in order to promote traditional practices, but for some they include a more material reward or prize money or are part of fund-raisi

Cache-Sexe

Sandra Lee Evenson

Source: The Berg Companion to Fashion 2010

Encyclopedia entry

To solve the mystery of why they were [worn], I think we must follow our eyes. Not only do the skirts hide nothing of importance, but also if anything, they attract the eye precisely to the specifically female sexual areas by framing them, presenting them, or playing peekaboo with them &. Our best guess, then is that string skirts indicated something about the childbearing ability or readiness of a woman, & that she was in some sense “available” as a bride. (p. 59)

Middle Eastern

Mary H. Farahnakian

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The dress and fashion of Middle Eastern immigrants emphasize copying, retooling, and reinterpreting traditions and developing new identities in the United States and Canada. These changes are generally influenced by their immigration background, dress design, and values of traditional and nontraditional immigrants. They also include religious values and customs as well as types, significance, and appropriateness of dress fit and design.

Quakers and Shakers

Beverly Gordon

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Anabaptists derive their name because the early practitioners of this branch of Protestantism sought to be rebaptized as adults although they had been baptized as children. There are four major Anabaptist groups: Hutterites, Mennonites, Brethren, and Amish, with subgroups within each category. Dress is an important means used by many Anabaptist groups to define their affiliation with a particular church, indicate their humility and willingness to submit to church discipline, and demonstrate their

Islam and Islamically Correct Dress (Hijab)

Fadwa El Guindi

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

As a term and dress form, Islamic dress came into common usage in the mid-1970s, when college youth in urban centers of Egypt began to appear in what they called Islamic dress, a practice that gradually spread internally in Egypt across cities and social strata, and elsewhere in the Arab and Islamic world. The manifestation of the emergent Islamic movement in the form of a new type of dress and associated comportment among male and female college youth took society and even the religious authorit

Ceremonial and Religious Dress in Australia

Lynne Hume

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

While indigenous Australians have occupied the continent of Australia for over forty thousand years, the British, including convicts, only began arriving in 1788 on the First Fleet, and Christian clergy arrived with them. Religion, customs, and dress of Europeans in those early years of colonization were based on the motherland of Great Britain, the settlers being largely monocultural. Since then Australian ceremonial and religious dress has been characterized by considerable diversity, and in th

Dress and Religious Practices

Lynne Hume

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Global Perspectives 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Religious dress visually communicates to observers that the wearer believes in a certain set of religious principles and practices. The status distinctions that exist within any group are also visibly conveyed by dress, which sometimes articulates nuances in the power structure markedly. At the same time, a religious group’s ideology may emphasize simplicity and humility, with these aspects reflected in their choice of clothing.

Overview of Korea: Traditional

Lee Kyung Ja

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The basic styles of hanbok, or Korean traditional dress, were established at a very early date and have remained essentially unchanged to the present day. The styles developed among steppe nomadic cultures and were introduced to the Korean peninsula probably during the first century b.c.e. Mural paintings from the walls of Goguryeo kingdom (37 b.c.e. to 668 c.e.) tombs dating from the late fourth to the sixth centuries c.e. show clearly the early forms of male and female dress: Men wear baji, or

Jewish Dress in Central and Southwest Asia and the Diaspora

Esther Juhasz

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Jewish dress has been shaped by the Jewish code of law, halacha, and various types of contacts with other religions and cultures. The halacha deals in detail with the desired conduct of a Jew in everyday life, including explicit rulings and recommended attitudes on dress. No specific dress was ever mandated by Jewish law, and as a result no universal Jewish dress evolved. Some common principles are recognizable in a variety of styles of Jewish dress. In some places Jews played an active role in t

Body Concepts in Korea and North Asia

Jaehee Jung

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Although concepts of Korean female beauty have changed during the five-thousand-year history of the peninsula, these ideals have always been deeply embedded in the daily lives of women. Historically, they have been largely shaped by two influences from China: notions of famed female beauties and Confucian modesty. The theme of beautiful women formed an important genre of poetry and literature, as well as painting, in China and in the East Asian cultures influenced by it. These images, while often

Sports and Dress

Ingun Grimstad Klepp

Translated by Stig Erik Sørheim

Kjetil Enstad

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

In Europe, interest in sports and outdoor life emerged in the nineteenth century. The bourgeoisie went to the countryside to experience nature. Time spent in contact with nature was viewed as a source of inner peace and spiritual development, while awareness of the importance of physical activity for beauty and health grew. With the introduction of regulated working hours and official holidays at the beginning of the twentieth century, the working classes began to have vacation and spare time, to

Dress, Undress, Clothing, and Nudity

Frederick John Lamp

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Global Perspectives 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The concepts of nudity and dress are burdened with implicit moral and cultural connotations as well as the subjectivity of the viewer. As a binary conception applied to the tropical non-Western world by European observers, nudity is entangled in a multitude of ideas about the self and the other, often pejorative to a greater or lesser extent, and inherently misconceived. A more accurate Western understanding of non-Western dress and nudity must take into account the existing and historical Wester

Dressing the Body in Samoa

Sean Mallon

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Samoa consists of two large tropical islands and six smaller ones in the Pacific Ocean, northeast of Fiji. Its people are of Polynesian descent, and the islands have had a complex history of regional interaction. The tropical environment furnished flora and fauna utilized by the people of these islands for the construction of clothing and body modifications. During the nineteenth century dressing the body involved not only covering with garments but also marking or coloring the skin, wrapping it

Muslim Dress and the Head-Scarf Debate

Annelies Moors

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Debates about the presence of students wearing head scarves in public schools in West Europe started in the late 1980s; about a decade later, the employment of women wearing head scarves also became the focus of attention. These debates need to be seen within a context in which a new generation of Muslims (often second-generation migrants) started to enter the educational system and then the labor market. As new Muslim citizens, these young men and women have increasingly become socially and poli

Dress in the Marshall Islands

Nancy J. Pollock

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The people of the two chains of atolls that make up the Marshall Islands have adopted styles of dress and adornment over the years to fit their cultural and social parameters. This attire reflects their aesthetics, modified by many outside influences from the times of early voyagers to the present. Dress materials and other items of embellishment were originally made from the islands’ resources, such as processed leaves and dyes, while latterly cotton materials have been used, along with local ma

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