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Vivienne Westwood, Spring/Summer 1993

Lucy Moyse

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Article

Based on a thorough and careful understanding of fashion history and its great designers, yet delivered with bold, bright colors, extravagant accessories, and even nudity, Vivienne Westwood’s collection for spring/summer 1993 demonstrates her nuanced mastery of her art. The collection was shown in Le Grand Hôtel, Paris: the first time Westwood had used this location, where she would go on to host several further shows.

Aboriginal Dress in the Kimberley, Western Australia

Kim Akerman

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

As in most other areas of Australia, the Aboriginals of the Kimberley were traditionally unclothed. For them, dress consisted of headbands and hair belts. Pubic tassels (made by tying multiple strands of spun fur or hair string into a mop, suspended over the genital area) were worn occasionally. Other elements of dress consisted of ornaments made from feathers, fibers, animal teeth, or shell, the use of which was often dictated by the ceremonial and social status of the wearer. More complex ornam

Nudism

Ruth Barcan

Source: The Berg Companion to Fashion 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Nudism arose in Germany at the turn of the twentieth century, and spread through Europe, the United States, and Australia. The so-called “father of nudism” was the German Heinrich Pudor (real name Heinrich Scham), who coined the term Nacktkultur (“naked culture”) and whose book Nackende Menschen (Naked man [1894]) was probably the first book on nudism. Richard Ungewitter (author of Die Nacktheit [1906]) is more widely known as the founder of nudism, his reputation having survived Pudor’s accusati

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Nudity

Ruth Barcan

Source: The Berg Companion to Fashion 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Nakedness and clothing help define each other. They can function as “nuclei” of humans’ “sense of order” (Clark, p. 4), as in the following sample list of fundamental sense-making oppositions in the Western tradition:

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Aboriginal Dress in Arnhem Land

Louise Hamby

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The items that Aboriginal people wore on their bodies in Arnhem Land, an Aboriginal reserve in the top portion of the Northern Territory, before contact with outsiders from Macassar and the rest of Australia, were influenced by environmental, cultural, and social factors. The landscape varies from the coast; Arnhem Land changes from escarpment to open woodlands. It has a monsoonal climate with hot to warm temperatures in both the wet and the dry seasons. Bodily items were not worn for warmth, pro

Aboriginal Dress in Australia: Evidence and Resources

Philip Jones

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

As Bernard Smith, eminent historian of the art of colonial encounter, has demonstrated so clearly, Australian Aboriginal people have often been portrayed in terms of “hard primitivism.” Their minimalist suite of material possessions, their enforced nomadism and capacity to survive the harshest conditions, has been readily juxtaposed with the “soft primitivism” of hierarchically organized and sedentary Pacific peoples. This tendency can be traced from the earliest descriptions made by Dutch seafar

Introduction to the Dress of the Pacific Islands

Adrienne L. Kaeppler

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The Pacific Ocean covers one-third of the earth’s surface and is inhabited by hundreds of cultural groups. Some twenty-five thousand islands, ranging from tiny specks of coral to the large island of New Guinea, are occupied by physically diverse peoples, many of whom have mixed and intermixed. Environments range from snowy mountains to raging volcanoes, from steaming rain forests to parched deserts, from coral atolls to volcanic outcrops. These Pacific Islands are usually divided into three histo

Aboriginal Dress in Southeast Australia

Sylvia Kleinert

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Dress embodies a complex system of meanings in Aboriginal society. On the one hand, dress is seen to be pivotal to the formation of individual and group identity, articulating relationships between private and public. On the other hand, dress expands our understanding of the way in which Aboriginal people have engaged in cross-cultural relations with a colonial regime. Prior to European contact, the dressed body and its embellishment with artifacts encoded multiple meanings as a marker of individ

Sierra Leone

Frederick John Lamp

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Africa 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Dress in Sierra Leone and the surrounding region differs according to whether it is worn in everyday life or on celebratory occasions and whether it is worn among special classes of people, such as chiefs, hunters, and various ethnocultural groups. Dress that has emerged from indigenous design is most distinctive, whether worn by adults or, in miniature version, by children. Sierra Leoneans also wear Western-style clothes. Traditionally, nudity was common.

Dress, Undress, Clothing, and Nudity

Frederick John Lamp

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Global Perspectives 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The concepts of nudity and dress are burdened with implicit moral and cultural connotations as well as the subjectivity of the viewer. As a binary conception applied to the tropical non-Western world by European observers, nudity is entangled in a multitude of ideas about the self and the other, often pejorative to a greater or lesser extent, and inherently misconceived. A more accurate Western understanding of non-Western dress and nudity must take into account the existing and historical Wester

Ancient Greek Dress

Mireille M. Lee

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Ancient Greek dress refers to dress of the archaic (ca. 700–480 b.c.e.), classical (ca. 480–323 b.c.e.), and Hellenistic (ca. 323–146 b.c.e.) periods. In antiquity, the Greek-speaking world included mainland Greece and the islands of the Aegean, as well as the western coast of Asia Minor (modern Turkey) and Magna Graecia (including southern Italy and Sicily). Dress varied according to region; some garments and perfumes, for example, were identified by their cities of origin. Unfortunately, many o

Equatorial Guinea

Enrique Okenve

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Africa 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The tiny central African country of Equatorial Guinea covers only 28,051 square kilometers (11,000 square miles). It is comprised of a few islands, of which Bioko—formerly known as Fernando Po—off the coast of Cameroon is the largest, and a 26,000-square-kilometer (10,000-square-mile) mainland territory known as Rio Muni nestled between Cameroon and Gabon. With European expansionism, these territories were ceded in 1778 from Portugal to Spain, but the Spaniards did not arrive until 1858. During t

Costume for Dance

Helena Wulff

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The appearance of the tutu (a stiff, delicate ballet skirt made of tulle), together with pointe shoes (which enable ballerinas to dance on pointe, that is, on the tip of their toes) in 1832 in Paris marked the turning point for costumes used for different types of dance in West Europe. Dance costumes have been included in chronological accounts listing ballet and contemporary dance production credits and have also been studied as costumes and garments in their social and cultural contexts, often

Bathing

Nigel Yates

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Sea bathing became popular, largely for medical reasons, from the mid-eighteenth century onwards. Initially men bathed naked and women bathers generally wore shifts. Men and women bathed separately, from bathing machines, enclosures that were drawn out into the water. By the late nineteenth century sea bathing had become a social practice; men and women bathed together, requiring the development of bathing dress for both. Men’s swimwear changed little until the 1930s, a two-part outfit comprising

Between Clothing and Nudity

Mario Perniola

Source: Classic and Modern Writings on Fashion 2nd Edition 2009

Book chapter

In the figurative arts, eroticism appears as a relationship between clothing and nudity. Therefore, it is conditional on the possibility of movement – transit – from one state to the other. If either of these poles takes on a primary or essential significance to the exclusion of the other, then the possibility for this transit is sacrificed, and with it the conditions for eroticism. In such cases, either clothing or nudity becomes an absolute value.

J.C. Flügel and the Nude Future

Michael Carter

Source: Fashion Classics from Carlyle to Barthes 2003

Book chapter

It seems that the two human needs – to disclose oneself and conceal oneself – would be combined in the female psyche in quite a different way than in the male.

Naked Divers: A Case of Identity and Dress in Japan

D.P. Martinez

Source: Dress and Ethnicity. Change Across Space and Time 1995

Book chapter

The title of this chapter is meant to be provocative, just as Japanese female divers (ama) are perceived to be provocative. I intend to explore the idea of dress and undress as markers of identity in a society where total nakedness (save in the bath) is taboo and where the wearing of clothing appropriate to one’s status in life is important. Naked divers, it must be made clear, were not truly naked by western standards: a loincloth (koshimaki) had to be worn at all times. Now that the few remaini

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