Results: Text (40) Images (0)

You searched for

Modify your search terms or add filters

Filtered by

Sort by
Results per page
Results showing
1 - 25 of 40 (2 pages)
    Page 1 of 2
Croatia: Urban Dress, Twentieth to Twenty-First Centuries

Maja Arčabić

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Croatia entered the twentieth century split up into several territorial units within the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Dalmatia and Istria belonged to the Austrian part, while Civil Croatia and Slavonia, as well as the city of Rijeka, were under the control of Budapest. The continuity of Croatia as a political entity in its own right was maintained by the parliament, or Sabor, which convened in Zagreb, the capital of Croatia and Slavonia, but lacked any significant authority. The border between the tw

Azerbaijan—Urban Dress, the 1920s to the Twenty-First Century

Djurdja Bartlett

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The Azeri (Azerbaijani ethnicity) aristocracy and the nascent bourgeoisie and intelligentsia gradually introduced elements of Western styles into their dress beginning in the mid-nineteenth century, when the region was still part of the Russian tsarist empire. Europeanized dress was one of the elements within a wider discourse that challenged the old way of life and its long-held traditions and proposed modernization in all the fields of society. A new role for women was on the agenda of secular

Russian Constructivism in Dress and Textiles

Djurdja Bartlett

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Constructivism was embedded in immense political and social changes brought about by the Bolshevik Revolution. Its appearance in 1919 resulted from the merger of two parallel but very different artistic movements: futurism and proletkult. While futurism rebelled against bourgeois culture and lifestyle in a series of anarchistic practices, proletkult was a politically motivated mass movement that promoted a separate culture for the proletariat. In this context, for the constructivists, fashion was

Introduction to Dress and Fashion in East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus

Djurdja Bartlett

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The regions of East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus are known for their richly embroidered ethnic clothing. The varied styles of ethnic dress and the associated social practices throughout these regions were strongly influenced by both ancient traditions and highly diverse climatic and geographic conditions, ranging from subtropical to Arctic and from high mountains and rolling plains to northern oceans and southern seas. But the rich history of dress in this vast area is not confined to ethnic

Belarus

Hanna Chuchvaha

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

In the thirteenth century, Belarusian ethnic territory became an independent part of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. Developing handicraft industries and foreign commerce within the duchy in the sixteenth century favored new foreign garments. During the seventeenth century, the wealthy adopted West European, predominantly French, fashion. In 1795, the eastern territories of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, including the Belarusian territories, were annexed to the Russian Empire. In the nineteenth cent

Latvia: Urban Dress

Tatjana Cvetkova and Edīte Parute

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Latvia is located at the crossroads of international trade routes and has suffered many foreign invasions. Urban fashion shows evidence of various nations that have ruled Latvia, and links with other nations have engendered a unique mix of elements, along with sensitivity to European novelties. From early times, simple, functional dress was important. This has always been embellished by ornaments and accessories. Although national details have sometimes diluted modern tendencies, urban culture ha

Soviet Underwear

Julia Demidenko

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Soviet-era underwear—both its manufacturing and consumption—were determined not only by fashion but also, to a great extent, by the ideology and political goals of the state and its economic priorities at different stages. As a result of the revolution of February 1917, underwear became simpler, and its assortment was reduced. Due to the devastation that followed the October Revolution of 1917 and the civil war, people continued to wear prerevolutionary styles of underwear.

Polish Urban Dress in Transition from Socialism to Post-Socialism

Bogna Dowgiałło and Agnieszka Burska

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Material poverty and dramatically changed social structures influenced most Polish dress in the immediate postwar period. Because ethnic minorities had been either deported or exterminated and because both the Nazis and the Soviets had taken steps to eliminate the prewar elite, Polish society had become nearly homogenous.

Soviet State Cosmetic Company TEZHE in the 1930s

Jukka Gronow

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The Soviet culture of cosmetics was born in the middle of the 1930s. A major reorientation took place in the cultural policy of the USSR that had a direct impact on the consumption habits of Soviet citizens. This turn coincided with the final consolidation of Stalin’s power in the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. Stalin’s slogan from the year 1936, “life has become better, life has become more joyous, comrades,” summarized this new cultural mood. It formed a sharp contrast to the previous off

Czech Urban Dress, 1948 to Twenty-First Century

Konstantina Hlaváková

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

After the Communists seized power in Czechoslovakia in 1948, political change affected all areas of social life. The Communist regime considered fashion and styles of dress as effective ideological instruments through which it could exercise its control of society. The nationalization and liquidation of prospering small firms and the destruction of a network of services that had grown up over decades on the basis of natural need caused immediate economic problems. The new production structure and

Hungarian Subcultures during Socialism

Sándor Horváth

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The first phase of moral panic about hooliganism can be explored through visual depictions of jampecs (or spivs) in Hungary in the early 1950s. Jampecs were presented as setting a bad example to their peers by following capitalist values, expressed through dress obtained on the black market. Before World War II, the term jampec mainly referred to dandies from richer families. Hungarian officials and journalists used the example of jampecs to explain the dangers of Western popular culture. A new t

Ukraine

Natalie Kononenko

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Ukraine is an ancient land of great natural resources that has supported human habitation since prehistoric times. Yet it has existed as an independent state only since 1991. Ukraine, Russia, and Belarus all developed from Rus’, a conglomeration of city-states headed by Kyiv (the Ukrainian spelling of the city otherwise known as Kiev), the capital of modern Ukraine. This state, which is often referred to as Kyivan Rus’, flourished in the tenth to twelfth centuries. After the collapse of Rus’ the

Armenia

Gary Lind-Sinanian and Susan Lind-Sinanian

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Historically and geographically, the land of Armenia has been identified for the last 2,600 years with the great plateau in eastern Asia Minor and the adjacent Transcaucasus Mountains, a vast (100,000-square-mile or 260,000-square-kilometer) highland of rolling hills and steep mountain valleys. Most of the Armenian population in this area was deported or exterminated during World War I, and the area identified in the early twenty-first century politically as the Republic of Armenia actually compr

Class

Elizabeth D. Lowe

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada 2010

Encyclopedia entry

To understand the current relationships between class and dress in the United States and Canada, it is necessary to review the most important theories that have been put forth about class and dress in Western Europe. There are nearly as many opinions about the nature of class as there are people. These opinions vary widely, ranging from, “class explains everything” to “it no longer exists.” To many, social class has become just a metaphor for varied access to resources, a way to describe the unev

Changes in Gender in Socialism

Katalin Medvedev

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

All ideologies strive to project a visual representation, and Socialism was no exception. Socialist subjects were expected to transform the world, and their ideological makeover included their appearance. Socialism sought to transcend class as well as gender differences and was geared toward suppressing individuality and propagating collectivism. The dress of a Socialist subject was intended to make a clear political statement and express loyalty to the Socialist regime. The regime focused on the

Romanian Urban Dress after 1900

Sanda Miller

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The role of fashion as a barometer of social progress was reflected in the speed with which Romanian society discarded the Ottoman dress they had worn for hundreds of years for West European attire at the beginning of the twentieth century. The extent of the cultural influence France exerted over Romania from the early 1900s until World War II—when Romania became one of the satellite countries of the Soviet Union—can be measured by the monumental exhibition entitled Expozitiunea generala romana t

Lithuania: Urban Dress

Taira Milušauskaité

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

In the first half of the twentieth century, Lithuania experienced the same economic and social changes as other countries of Central and East Europe. Features of capitalism were strengthening and bourgeois society was developing, which influenced fashion dispersion. Light industry had developed in Vilnius, with the opening of sewing shops, studios, workshops, clothing shops, and beauty salons. Fashionable clothes became mass-produced and mass-consumed goods. Railways allowed the growth of import

Bulgaria: Urban Dress

Mary Neuburger

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The story of Bulgarian urban dress begins with the slow but steady process of Bulgarian urbanization in the late eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Bulgaria had been under Ottoman rule since the fourteenth century, a period during which urban centers in the regions that make up Bulgaria in the twenty-first century had a profoundly mixed population—primarily Turkish-speaking Muslims; Greek, Vlach (Romanian), and Armenian-speaking Christians; Roma and Sephardic- (Judeo-Spanish) speaking Jews. Sla

Tallinn House of Fashion under Socialism

Anu Ojavee

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Professional fashion design in Estonia started in the decades preceding World War II. Fashion study at the State Applied Art School (now the Estonian Academy of Arts) started in 1940 under Natalie Mei. Under Soviet rule Estonia’s economy and culture were thoroughly reshaped. From 1957 until the end of the Soviet Union in 1991, garment design was concentrated in Tallinna Moemaja (Tallinn House of Fashion), where top Estonian designers and tailors created samples for the garment industry. Even duri

Polish Youth Fashion under Socialism

Anna Pelka

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

After World War II, the Polish United Workers’ Party came to power in Poland. For the Communist authorities, educating young people in the Marxist and Leninist spirit was of particular importance. A Communist teenager was obliged to strengthen the system and the state as well as engage in activism through youth organizations. Clothing was also an element revealing the teen’s position in society. The government-promoted school or union uniform played an educational and social role, and its standar

Serbia: Urban Dress, 1945 to Twenty-First Century

Maja Studen Petrovic

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

After the end of World War II in 1945, Serbia joined five other republics to form the Democratic Federal Yugoslavia, which received its last official name, the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, in 1963. The Communist takeover resulted in radical changes of the social system, because it was initially based on the Soviet model. The new age was also marked by cultural, educational, and scientific reorganization in line with Socialist standards, accompanied by propaganda clearly colored by id

Estonia: Urban Dress

Reet Piiri

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

In the thirteenth century, Estonia was divided among German nobility, but no German peasants moved there, so a clear ethnic divide developed along class lines. Clothing was produced in guilds, and also at home, especially (but not only) in poorer households. The fifteenth century marked the advent of the décolleté, hoop skirt, flared sleeves, and gold and silver embroidery. Although the Reformation reached Estonia in 1523, the courtly clothing fashions of Catholic Spain exerted an influence. The

Slovak Fashion after 1989

Zuzana Sidlikova

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The year 1989 was one of political changes for the Communist countries in East Europe, which also influenced the then-Czechoslovak textile and clothing industries. The companies, which had been operating under state rule since their nationalization in 1945–1948, became privately owned in 1991. COMECON (Council for Mutual Economic Assistance), the association through which the Soviet Union and East European Socialist countries traded between themselves, also disappeared. As a result of this disint

The Concept of Modesty in Socialist Dress and Grooming

Olga Vainshtein

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The concept of modesty in Soviet fashion was part of the disciplinary code imposed by ideological regulations regarding one’s appearance. A unitary aesthetic originating in the ideology of collectivism codified social behavior, concepts of propriety, and thoroughly normative notions about beauty. The requirement of modesty implicated an attitude of general restraint and moderation in both body and dress: undecorated and functional clothes, dark colors, few accessories, reserved manners. The perfe

Hungary: Urban Dress, 1948 to 2000

Tibor Valuch

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Dress customs in Hungary changed markedly at the turn of the 1950s. The Hungarian Fashion Designers’ Union stated that a modern designer’s task was not to dream up dress fantasy for a few stylish ladies, but to design attractive, practical clothes for millions of working women. Magazines for woman offered practical advice on altering outdated bourgeois clothes and suggested that the dress of today’s woman was practical, healthy, and pretty, and that the big stores served the interests of working

Back to top
Results showing
1 - 25 of 40 (2 pages)
Page 1 of 2