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Daniel Hechter

Paula Alaszkiewicz

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Designer Biography

Hip-Hop

Shayla Corinne Black

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Article

Hip-hop is a multifaceted genre of twentieth-century music, whose influence has expanded from the streets to the runway. It is a global phenomenon embraced by millions. Hip-hop began in the Bronx, New York and was forged by black youth as a form of artistic expression. Groups like Run-D.M.C. were iconic with their trademarks: Adidas sneakers, tracksuits, bucket hats, and gold rope chains. The fashion world avidly participated by appropriating the bright colors, athletic wear, loose-fitting garmen

Vivienne Westwood, Spring/Summer 1984

Lucy Moyse

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Article

Models raise their hands in the air as victorious athletes. The stripes that accent their clothing increase the perception of speed and movement as they walk the catwalk, sportily kicking the air as they traverse. Vivienne Westwood’s spring/summer collection of 1984 was named after the ancient Greek personification of sleep, Hypnos, yet deliberately contrasted its namesake with bold, illuminating, and awakening flashes of neon, in a gesture of defiance that is typical of Westwood’s oeuvre.

Suzanne Lenglen

Jaclyn Pyper

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Article

Suzanne Lenglen was a French tennis player and one of the first female celebrity athletes. Born in Paris in 1899, Suzanne developed her skills on the tennis courts of the French Riviera. Soon after her first win at Wimbledon in 1919, she began to be dressed both on and off the court by the up-and-coming couturier Jean Patou. Suzanne would dominate the international women’s tennis circuit in the 1920s, but her celebrity was equally built on her glamorous lifestyle, clothing, and temperamental pers

Bibliographic guide

Sportsmen and women wear particular clothing for reasons which include freedom of movement, physical protection of the body, weatherproofing, identification, enhanced performance, team bonding, and also fashion. The article explores some of the literature on various aspects of sportswear, such as its history, specialization for individual sports, fashion, and the impact of textile technology. It investigates and guides readers toward a selection of texts that give detailed information on sports c

The Healthy Body and the Politics of Fitness

Geraldine Howell

Source: Wartime Fashion. From Haute Couture to Homemade, 1939–1945 2012

Book chapter

Overview of Mongolia

Monisha Ahmed

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Walking down the main street in Ulan Bator, Mongolia’s capital, past gray, crumbling Soviet-era buildings, a woman wearing a blue silk del, or robe, contrasts with the robust man by her side in a sober, gray Western-style suit. Walking alongside them are women in skinny jeans, fitted T-shirts, and stiletto heels. But far from the city, a nomad wears his sheepskin robe, sitting astride his horse. Mongolia has many faces. Probably the most celebrated of these is Chinggis Khaan, better known by his

Nautical Style

Elizabeth K. Bye

Source: The Berg Companion to Fashion 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The “Jack-tar” describes a sailor of sixteenth century Europe who wore a waist-length tarred leather jacket and hat for water protection. To facilitate movement on the ships, loose breeches called “slops” and tunics of canvas or coarse linen were worn. The slops were often striped or red in color. In addition, a tar-coated canvas petticoat called a tarpaulin was often worn over the slops during rough weather. A neckerchief and knitted woolen cap provided additional protection for the head. The ta

Clothing Design Potential for Athletes with Disabilities

Kate Carroll

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Global Perspectives 2010

Encyclopedia entry

As competition in sports by people with disabilities has risen, especially with the increasing popularity of the Special Olympics and Paralympic Games, clothing has had an impact on people’s competitive abilities and approach to sport in general.

Headdress

Beverly Chico

Source: The Berg Companion to Fashion 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Hairnets may be the oldest headdresses worn by humans. A mammoth-ivory figurine dated circa 36,000 B.C.E. and found at Brassempouy (Las Landes), France, shows a human face with hair possibly braided and covered with what appears to be a netting. Bronze Age second millennium B.C.E. hairnets of horsehair using the sprang or twisted-thread technique were found in Borum Eshøj, Denmark, and are preserved in the National Museum, Copenhagen. Complementing long, unfitted robes, a fashionable silk hairnet

Equestrian Costume

Alison Matthews David

Source: The Berg Companion to Fashion 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The materials worn for riding from the mid-seventeenth to the early twentieth centuries were easily distinguished from the silks, muslins, and velvets of fashionable evening dress. Equestrian activities required sturdy and often weatherproof fabrics such as woolen broadcloth, camlet (a silk and wool or hair mixture), melton wool, and gabardine for colder weather and linen or cotton twill for summer or the tropics. In the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, habits were frequently adorned wi

Figure Skating Dress and Costume

Moira F. Harris

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Global Perspectives 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The earliest dress for an ice-skater was basic winter-weather gear. Coats or jackets, pants or skirts, mittens or gloves, and hats or scarves protected skaters from the cold and damp. Early paintings and prints give evidence of these choices. In the nineteenth century concerns for health and fitness led to an interest in outdoor recreation. In many cities clubs were formed, and outdoor rinks were planned and built in parks. Clothing intended for skaters’ use was increasingly available. Competitio

Sonja Henie

Moira F. Harris

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Global Perspectives 2010

Encyclopedia entry

See alsoFigure Skating Dress and Costume.

Sports and Dress

Ingun Grimstad Klepp

Translated by Stig Erik Sørheim

Kjetil Enstad

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

In Europe, interest in sports and outdoor life emerged in the nineteenth century. The bourgeoisie went to the countryside to experience nature. Time spent in contact with nature was viewed as a source of inner peace and spiritual development, while awareness of the importance of physical activity for beauty and health grew. With the introduction of regulated working hours and official holidays at the beginning of the twentieth century, the working classes began to have vacation and spare time, to

Olympic Dress, Uniforms, and Fashion

Karen LaBat and Susan L. Sokolowski

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Global Perspectives 2010

Encyclopedia entry

In the world of sport, the Olympics are the international catwalk to showcase innovation, brand identity, designer talent, national pride and athletic moments. The modern Olympics, 1896 to today, include winter and summer sporting events that can be used to promote a host country, highlight apparel companies’ new technologies and designs, and catapult athletes’ careers. The Olympics offer a prime opportunity for the introduction of innovative styles and technologies evident in both the opening an

Black and New Zealand Dress

Bronwyn Labrum

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The color black features in New Zealand dress in distinctive ways that are the product of the nation’s particular history and culture. It is frequently evoked as New Zealand’s national color, primarily because of its lengthy association with the game of rugby union and the uniform of other key sporting codes. More recently, the supposed affinity between this hue and the work of leading fashion designers has cemented the association. The color black has connections across other groups within New Z

Finland

Bo Lönnqvist

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Early nineteenth-century Finnish fashion was influenced by Stockholm, capital of Finland and Sweden since the thirteenth century. In the 1790s the Finnish upper classes wore styles influenced by rococo and neoclassicism, known as Gustavian after Gustavus III of Sweden. After the war of 1808–1809 Finland was separated from Sweden and annexed to the Russian Empire as a grand duchy until Finnish independence in 1917. A new bourgeois class developed. Male dress lost its extravagance, symbolizing bure

Sportswear in Australia

Andrea Mitchell, Christine Schmidt and Jinna Tay

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Australia prides itself on being a sporting nation, and sport is an integral part of the nation’s identity. Some say that it verges on being a religion, helping to build healthy Australian men, women, and young aspirants, and to spread the fame of Australians overseas. The combined effects of a temperate climate and rugged landscape have produced a national psyche that privileges the strong, outdoor-oriented, sports-loving body—yet a body clothed in sportswear for the most part similar to that wo

Activewear

Bradley Quinn

Source: The Berg Companion to Fashion 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Dress for Recreational Sports and Professional Sports

Susan L. Sokolowski

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Sport is any athletic activity that requires physical skill, rules, or customs and specific dress and environment in order to participate. Recreational sport is any athletic activity that a person may participate in to occupy one’s spare time enjoyably, as a diversion from work or school. Some people participate in recreational sports to help manage a healthy lifestyle and improve their physique. There are a multitude of sports in which North Americans participate. Special types of dress that fac

Sneakers

Susan L. Sokolowski

Source: The Berg Companion to Fashion 2010

Encyclopedia entry

According to some historians, King Henry VIII of England expressed ideas related to an athletic sneaker-type construction in the 1500s. According to folklore, the king was getting a bit overweight, and he decided playing tennis would be a good way to get in shape. But he was not happy with the shoes he had. He ordered his servant to get “syxe paire of shooys with feltys, to pleye in at tennis” (six pairs of shoes with felt bottoms to play tennis in), from the local cobbler (Paquin 1990). Although

Children’s Clothes

Viveka Berggren Torell

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The notion that children represent the future has influenced children’s dress for a long time. During the Enlightenment, childhood started to be seen as an important, separate period in a person’s life that ought to be devoted to a playful existence. At that time, philosophers advocated clothes allowing free movement of the body, to make it possible for children to develop according to their “inner path” and thereby become sensible adults. These ideas later reverberated in the twentieth century,

Swimwear

Susan Ward

Source: The Berg Companion to Fashion 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Swimming and bathing were common activities in the ancient world, and the Romans built public baths in even the most remote parts of their empire. After declining during the Middle Ages, bathing was revived in the seventeenth century, when it became popular as a medicinal treatment. At spas such as Bath and Baden, where bathers sought out the warm mineral waters for their therapeutic effects, linen bathing garments—knee-length drawers and waistcoats for men, and long-sleeved linen smocks or chemi

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Sportswear

Patricia Campbell Warner

Source: The Berg Companion to Fashion 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The origins of sportswear, so intimately tied to the rise of sports, are complex, arising from pervasive social change and cultural developments in the mid-nineteenth century. Previously, sport had been the domain of the landed well-to-do, revolving mostly around horses, shooting, and the hunt. Clothing generally was modified fashion wear, but distinctions between the clothing of the country and of town had appeared as early as the eighteenth century. Men, especially young men, wore the new colla

Bathing

Nigel Yates

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Sea bathing became popular, largely for medical reasons, from the mid-eighteenth century onwards. Initially men bathed naked and women bathers generally wore shifts. Men and women bathed separately, from bathing machines, enclosures that were drawn out into the water. By the late nineteenth century sea bathing had become a social practice; men and women bathed together, requiring the development of bathing dress for both. Men’s swimwear changed little until the 1930s, a two-part outfit comprising

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