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Ethical Fashion and Ecofashion

Sandy Black

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Global Perspectives 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Although the fashion industry is fast-moving and often dismissed as frivolous, it represents one of the major global economic players. Fashion is one of the few remaining craft-based industries, relying on skilled manual labour for manufacturing across its wide spectrum of levels, which raises particular issues for production. There is an urgent need to reconcile ethical, environmental, social, and personal agendas through future product development and manufacturing cycles in the fashion industr

Sweatshops

Gary Chaison

Source: The Berg Companion to Fashion 2010

Encyclopedia entry

London as a Fashion City

Edwina Ehrman

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

London is part of a global fashion system, known in international circles for its fashion heritage and diversity, its hybrid sense of style, its vibrant consumer culture, and the creativity of its fashion graduates. It is equated with originality and experimentation and with styles that draw on a wide vocabulary of cultural references. The media tend to the innovative and radical, and the exposure given to designers who embody these qualities weights perceptions of London. The city plays a key ro

Globalization and Dress

Margaret Maynard

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Global Perspectives 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The trading of articles of dress, cloth, body adornments, precious stones, oils, and perfumes across wide areas of the globe, whether by sea, river, or overland routes, has taken place for centuries. All manner of cultural transfers and modifications of dress have eventuated because of migrations, diasporic movements, and subjugation of peoples. Something very different, though, is the globalization of dress, the increasing dominance of mass-produced standardized clothing across the world, which

The Textile Industry

Michiel Scheffer

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The textile industry covers the sequence of production stages, starting from fibers through clothing assembly. Europe’s textile industry has been significant in both economic and cultural history. It was the first sector to industrialize and was therefore at the core of the pervasive economic and social changes that took place in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. For more than a century, the advantages of large-scale cloth production made West Europe a world leader in this trade, but since

The Garment Industry and Retailing in the United States

Rob Schorman

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The U.S. garment industry has followed a distinctive path that at various times has seemed to position it in the vanguard of industrial development and at other times as a stubborn holdout of archaic production methods. Some characteristics of the industry have remained stable from the start: its dependence on a dense web of subcontractors arrayed in relatively small units of production, its basic workflow organization, its extreme sensitivity to consumer preferences, and its resistance to automa

Ethics and Industry

Lise Skov

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The question of ethics is about determining concepts of right and wrong human action. There are a number of ethical controversies in relation to the industries that dress the visible self, especially the clothing, shoes, accessories, and skin-care industries. The five main areas of controversy are, first, representations of idealized gender and body images; second, fakes and counterfeits of branded goods; third, working conditions; fourth, environmental impact and sustainability; and fifth, anima

New York: Caught under the Fashion Runway

Yu

Source: Unravelling the Rag Trade. Immigrant Entrepreneurship in Seven World Cities 2002

Book chapter

New York City has been the centre of fashion in the United States since the late nineteenth century. As ready-made clothes became more accepted and celebrated as part of a way of life in the New World, New York rapidly became the indisputable centre for factory garment manufacturing. Immigrants have shaped the garment industry in New York City from its very start. Many immigrant groups in New York were involved in this trade, including Jews and Italians at the turn of the century, and newer Chine

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