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Walter Van Beirendonck

Paula Alaszkiewicz

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Designer Biography

Nino Cerruti

Giulia Bussinello

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Designer Biography

Uniforms

Nigel Arch

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

A uniform may be defined as a prescribed set of clothing peculiar to a distinct group of individuals within a society. It is distinguished by displays of hierarchy evident on parts of the dress and will usually also display emblems that act as signals only readily interpreted by other members of the group. Hierarchy is expressed in terms of rank, and badges of rank have appeared on such elements of uniform dress as the shoulder strap and cuffs of the upper body garment. Other symbols act as remin

Accessories

Valerie Cumming

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

There is a debate about whether accessories are “essential” or “additional to dress.” From 1800 onwards, there are relatively few new accessories; some gradually disappeared, and others became increasingly important, their roles reflecting a changing world. Many times those actually producing these goods could themselves afford only basic, practical items. Certain crafts were more suited to mechanized production—knitted goods like stockings and printed fabrics—others, like millinery, beaded bags,

Design Innovation by Japanese Designers Miyake, Kawakubo, and Yamamoto

Sandhya Lalloo-Morar

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Rarely has a concept in clothing design attracted the sort of dread and hysteria that deconstruction has incited since its inception in 1967. Deconstruction can be described as the literal dismantling of clothes in order to destroy fashion. The philosophy was aimed at un-building the constructs of a culture inherited from previous generations.Japanese designers Issey Miyake, Yohji Yamamoto, and Rei Kawakubo have been widely regarded as innovators in the fashion world and leading exponents of deco

Gender

Gertrud Lehnert

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The basic distinction between female and male dress in the Western world is between women’s skirts and men’s bifurcated trousers. Only in the twentieth century was this abandoned—but in one direction, since, even today, men do not wear skirts, despite some attempts by fashion designers. This does not indicate that trousers are more natural for men, but that in the West, they denote supremacy and masculinity. From the late Middle Ages onwards, increasing emphasis was put on gender differentiation

Finland

Bo Lönnqvist

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Early nineteenth-century Finnish fashion was influenced by Stockholm, capital of Finland and Sweden since the thirteenth century. In the 1790s the Finnish upper classes wore styles influenced by rococo and neoclassicism, known as Gustavian after Gustavus III of Sweden. After the war of 1808–1809 Finland was separated from Sweden and annexed to the Russian Empire as a grand duchy until Finnish independence in 1917. A new bourgeois class developed. Male dress lost its extravagance, symbolizing bure

School Uniforms in New Zealand

Elaine Webster

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

New Zealand has a strong and continuing tradition of school uniform in secondary (high) schools. Nearly everyone going to school in New Zealand since the 1940s wore a uniform for between five and thirteen of their formative years, although their experiences are likely to have been different from those of their parents and the next generation. The meanings and the functions of school uniforms are culturally and historically specific, and in New Zealand they altered considerably over the twentieth

Epilogue

Juanjuan Wu

Source: Chinese Fashion. From Mao to Now 2009

Book chapter

The Post-Mao Fashion Revival

Juanjuan Wu

Source: Chinese Fashion. From Mao to Now 2009

Book chapter

The Cultural Revolution was a period marked by turmoil, repression, and violence in every facet of Chinese life. Answering Mao Zedong’s call for a sweeping, revolutionary campaign that would give birth to a new China, millions of young Chinese joined the Red Guard, a mass movement that shattered the existing order in an attempt to stamp out everything that was old, feudal, or foreign. Mao and the Red Guard closed the schools and denounced teachers and intellectuals as impediments to the revolutio

The Spread of Fashion through Mass Media

Juanjuan Wu

Source: Chinese Fashion. From Mao to Now 2009

Book chapter

When the television set first came to China in 1958, locally produced black-and-white TV models were available only to high-ranking government officials. For the next two decades, television remained an expensive luxury item far beyond the meager means of most Chinese. For example, in the mid-1970s an eleven-inch set cost seven hundred yuan while the average monthly income in Shanghai was only twenty-seven yuan.JonathanD.Spence, The Search for Modern China (New York: Norton, 1991), 672. In additi

From Asexual to Unisex

Juanjuan Wu

Source: Chinese Fashion. From Mao to Now 2009

Book chapter

Throughout China’s imperial history the role of women in society had always been one of distinct subservience to men in accordance with Confucian teachings. In the Confucian system the role of women was defined and governed by the “three submissions” (daughter to father, wife to husband, and widow to son) and the “four virtues” (morality, appearance, speech, and domestic skills). The roles, behaviors, and appearances of women that these encompassed were defined, interpreted, and judged by men. It

Fashion in Print

Juanjuan Wu

Source: Chinese Fashion. From Mao to Now 2009

Book chapter

As early as 1979, Zhongguo qingnian (China Youth) published a number of articles that attempted to reconcile the seemingly fundamental conflict between the state’s proletarian ideology and the nature of fashion. The articles published in China Youth generally adopted a pro-fashion viewpoint, as evinced in “Is Caring for Dress Capitalist?” “Discussing Guidance—Starting From Youth Hairstyles and Trouser Legs,” “What Is the Beauty of Dress?” and “To Adorn Oneself More Beautifully” in 1980; “One Shou

Importing Fashion Icons

Juanjuan Wu

Source: Chinese Fashion. From Mao to Now 2009

Book chapter

Pop music has always been a close cousin of fashion: Elvis, the Beatles, Madonna, Cher, Jennifer Lopez, along with scores of other rock and pop stars have both influenced and been influenced by the world of fashion. This is no less true in Asia than it is in the West, but in China in particular the influence of pop stars on Chinese dress is a more recent phenomenon—and a phenomenon that only took hold once the music itself ceased to be politically controversial.

Reinvented Identity: The Qipao and Tang-Style Jacket

Juanjuan Wu

Source: Chinese Fashion. From Mao to Now 2009

Book chapter

Dressing had always played a critical role in marking ranks and classes in the strict hierarchical system of imperial China. What Chinese men, in particular, wore had always been of great political importance. Throughout Chinese history, transitions between Chinese dynasties were always accompanied by a transformation in dress. And when Manchu nomads, an ethnic minority living to the northeast of the Great Wall, conquered China and established the Qing dynasty in 1644, they forced all Han Chinese

The Evolution of the Fashion Industry: Designers and Models

Juanjuan Wu

Source: Chinese Fashion. From Mao to Now 2009

Book chapter

Prior to the economic reforms launched in 1978, the garments of most urbanites (and of nearly all rural residents) were made either at home or in small tailor shops, either by hand or on home sewing machines. Home sewing machines were introduced to China in the 1920s and industrial models appeared in the 1960s, but it was not until after the economic reforms of the late 70s that the Chinese ready-to-wear industry started to cater to the needs of the masses.HuZongxiao and LuLu, “Fuzhuang hangye de

Importing Dreams of Luxury: Western Brand Names

Juanjuan Wu

Source: Chinese Fashion. From Mao to Now 2009

Book chapter

We are finished here in the West—our moment has come and gone. This is all about China and India and Russia. It is the beginning of the reawakening of cultures that have historically worshipped luxury and haven’t had it for so long.DanaThomas, Deluxe: How Luxury Lost Its Luster (New York: Penguin Press, 2007), 300.

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